European Capacity Building Initiative

ecbi Publications

ecbi's Publications and Policy Analysis Unit (PPAU) generates information and advice for developing country negotiators that is relevant to the climate negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  

Developing countries often lack the economic and institutional capacity for policy analysis. If negotiators are unable to engage proactively by submitting proposals, responding to proposals from other States, and assessing the impact of global climate policy decisions on their individual States, progress in the negotiations can be hampered by the lack of alternatives and uncertainity. The differences in analytic capacity between developing countries and the industrialised world are often profound – developing countries lack support from organisations like the OECD, for instance, which has an immense apparatus producing thorough and focused reports, including direct advice on future policy responses to each of member country.

ecbi publications aim to be relevant to ongoing negotiations under the UNFCCC, timely, and trustworthy. PPAU works with negotiators from developing countries, sometimes through Editorial Committees, to identify UNFCCC issues where further analysis and policy advice is needed. Global experts are then teamed up with negotiators from devleoping countries to produce Policy Briefs and Discussion Notes. This partnership between experts and negotiators helps to ensure that the process of producing a Brief addresses the specific concerns of developing country negotiators; builds the capacity of developing country co-authors in policy analysis; and also builds ownership of the analysis. 

For new negotiators, and for use in ecbi Regional and Pre-COP Training Workshops, PPAU produces Background Papers and a series of Pocket Guides. These generally provide a more basic analysis of issues for newcomers to the process, along with the background and history of the issue in the negotiations. 

Social responsibility is one of the key motivators of voluntary corporate action. It is therefore valuable to harness carbon markets to promote multiple co-benefits in addition to mitigation, including adaptation co-benefits, particularly if they promote global equity by generating resources to support those who suffer most from adverse impacts of climate change while having contributed least to causing it - for example through a Share of Proceeds for Adaptation (SOPA).

The Voluntary Carbon Market (VCM) thus has the unique opportunity to explore the value proposition that a SOPA can provide stakeholders. Given the political buy-in that SOPA can bring about, as observed during the CDM development, and the policy need to align with the provisions of the Paris Agreement, this OCP/ecbi Discussion Note recommends that ongoing efforts to improve the governance of the VCM should strive to:

  • encourage standard setters to promote a SOPA;
  • incorporate regulatory provisions for a SOPA into VCM as a key component of good governance and a high-level principle for the market, to ensure environmental and social non-carbon positive impacts; and
  • enhance coordination of supply and demand oversight efforts, to foster synergies towards effective SOPA implementation and delivery.
Author:
Benito Müller; Hanna-Marie Ahonen, Pedro Moura Costa, Daniel Ortega-Pacheco, Moekti (Kuki) Soejachmoen and Charlotte Streck
Publication Date:
March, 2022

A webinar launch of ecbi's latest policy brief, COP26 Key Outcomes, took place on 3 March 2022, attended by more than 70 people from around the world. The policy brief evaluates the major outcomes of UNFCCC COP26 and looks to the year ahead and, during webinar discussions, speakers urged more action in areas like financing, loss and damage, and adaptation. The summary report of the key discussions can be found here.

Author:
Publication Date:
March, 2022

This ecbi COP26 Key Outcomes report assesses the Glasgow Climate Summit on the level of political ambition it achieved as well as what it delivered on finance, loss and damage, transparency, common time frames, Article 6, and adaptation. It explains and evaluates key formal COP and CMA decisions, and the pledges and promises by various coalitions on issues ranging from coal to cars, methane to forests. The report suggests that Glasgow neither saved nor doomed us. While it failed to deliver enough political ambition and disappointed in several key areas, it arguably did enough to signal a shift away from business-as-usual. What’s more, COP26 finalised the Paris Rulebook, providing the tools needed to make more significant progress down-the-line. It also looks at what was left unfinished in Glasgow and what needs to happen in 2022 to maximise our chances of moving the needle at COP27 and beyond. 

Authored by experts with many years’ experience following the UNFCCC negotiations, the report features quotes and insights from ecbi’s network of negotiators and delegates who attended COP26.  

Author:
Aglaja Espelage, Axel Michaelowa, Benito Müller, Chris Spence, Christoph Schwarte
Publication Date:
January, 2022

This briefing paper examines the key equity issues in the current climate change negotiations leading to COP 15 in Copenhagen. In this connection the paper focuses on the negotiating text emerging from the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA). Under the “Bali Action Plan” the AWG-LCA is tasked to conduct “a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision at its fifteenth session” (in Copenhagen in 2009).

Author:
Christoph Schwarte and Emily Massawa
Publication Date:
August, 2009

The issue of predictable finance is once again on the negotiation table at the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP26) in Glasgow. Relevant – and highly contentious – is the issue of the applicability of Share of Proceeds (SoP) to the operationalisation of the different forms of market-based cooperation under the Paris Agreement (PA). 

Levying a Share of Proceeds (SoP) on mitigation units transferred on international carbon markets can be an important instrument to raise finance for adaptation measures in developing countries. An SoP was first introduced for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and under the Doha Amendment expanded to all market mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) – both for adaptation as well as for the funding of administrative costs. Now, notwithstanding that SoP is mentioned in the PA Article 6, how it is applied is a contentious issue in the negotiation in Article 6. 

This Policy Brief, funded by DANIDA and produced on behalf of ecbi by Oxford Climate Policy and Perspectives Climate Research, assesses the current debates surrounding SoP and its potential forms of implementation and makes recommendations for Article 6 negotiations regarding effective and efficient forms of SoP for adaptation and administrative costs. The final section considers ways in which funding predictability could be addressed through applying the idea of earmarking an SoP from the sale of mitigation units or carbon taxes at the regional, national, and sub-national level. North American and European examples are discussed, and it is concluded that multi-billion Euro funding could be generated by applying an SoP comparable to that of the KP mechanisms in this manner.

Author:
Aglaja Espelage, Axel Michaelowa, and Benito Müller with contributions by Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
November, 2021

On 21 October 2021, ecbi and Perspectives Climate Research co-hosted a workshop on Supporting adaptation through Article 6 of the Paris Agreement: Innovative funding through non-market cooperation and shares of proceeds. The goal of the workshop was to provide a platform to leading Article 6 negotiators and experts to discuss generating innovative finance for adaptation through share of proceeds in the run-up to UNFCCC COP26 in Glasgow. The workshop was attended by 30 participants, including representatives from NGOs, academia and key Article 6 negotiators from developing and developed countries.

Aglaja Espelage (Researcher, Perspectives Climate Research) and Professor Benito Müller (Director, ecbi) shared a pre-publication copy of a new ecbi policy brief on “Share of Proceeds: An innovative Source of Multilateral Climate Finance” with the participants and discussed the principal themes of the policy brief to be published on 1 November 2021.

In the second half of the workshop, Dr Axel Michaleowa (Research Director, Perspectives Climate Research) discussed the role of the Article 6.8 work programme in promoting adaptation finance.

The summary of the key discussions and feedback received from the workshop participants can be found in the workshop summary report here and the presentations here

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2021

This OCP/ecbi Discussion Note by Benito Müller looks at how the use of a ‘share of proceeds’ – referred to in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol and the Article 6 Mechanism of the Paris Agreement – could, as an innovative funding source, be extended to market mechanisms at the regional, national, and sub-national level.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2021

This Technical Paper produced by OCP/ecbi for the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) as part of their Strategic Partnership looks in some detail at the options under consideration in the negotiations on establishing a common time frame for the national targets (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement, one of the three top priority issues to be resolved at COP 26 in Glasgow to finalise the Paris rule book.

 

It analyses them with regard to 3 procedural prerequisites for accounting and maximizing ambition under the Paris Agreement, namely:

·         synchronized NDC end-years, to allow for taking stock of implementation and assessment of collective progress under the 5-yearly Global Stock Takes, as well as other crucial accounting tasks, such as the avoidance of double counting under the Article 6 emission trading regime

·         synchronized 'updating' (ambition enhancement), and

·         a notification window – the time between the communication year and the end year of the preceding NDC – for (first-time) communications of at least 5 years, to maximize the potential of the synchronized ambition enhancement.

 

The resulting Key Message for Policy Makers sums up the analysis in a succinct summary of why it is essential to adopt the Glasgow Ambition Cycle at COP 26.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2021

A webinar launch of the ecbi policy brief "Quo Vadis COP? Future Arrangements for Intergovernmental Meetings under the UNFCCC" took place on 26 March 2021. It was attended by 38 participants, including key UNFCCC negotiators from developed and developing countries, academics, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat staff, and representatives from nongovernment organisations. This report summarises the key discussions, and provides further clarifications on issues raised by participants.

Author:
Benito Müller, Jen Allan, Matthias Roesti, and Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
July, 2021

NEW! Spanish version. Countries communicate their plans to implement the Paris Agreement through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). What should these NDCs contain? What “information to facilitate clarity, transparency, and understanding” do countries need to provide? How should countries account for their actions? What happens if they fail to meet their NDC goals? Read our updated Pocket Guide, which now includes the provisions of the Paris rulebook, to find answers to these and other questions related to NDCs.

Author:
Fatima-Zahra Taibi, Susanne Konrad, and Olivier Bois von Kursk
Publication Date:
July, 2021

NEW! French version. Countries communicate their plans to implement the Paris Agreement through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). What should these NDCs contain? What “information to facilitate clarity, transparency, and understanding” do countries need to provide? How should countries account for their actions? What happens if they fail to meet their NDC goals? Read our updated Pocket Guide, which now includes the provisions of the Paris rulebook, to find answers to these and other questions related to NDCs.

Author:
Fatima-Zahra Taibi, Susanne Konrad, and Olivier Bois von Kursk
Publication Date:
July, 2021
Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
July, 2021

This brief history of Enhanced Direct Access traces the idea back to a number of historic precursors, such as the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) under the Marshall Plan, the World Bank Kecamatan Development Program in Indonesia, and the Brazilian Amazon Fund. It then follows how the idea evolved under the Bali Action Plan, the Transitional committee for the design of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and finally, the GCF Board, culminating in the establishment of a GCF. The second updated edition includes a summary account of EDA programmes that have been implemented under the UNFCCC/Paris Agreement Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund, as well as the French SUNREF (Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Energy Finance) programme, and ends with a forward looking section on 'performance-based' EDA.

Author:
Laurel Murray and Benito Müller with contributions from Luis Gomez-Echeverri & Sophie De Coninck
Publication Date:
July, 2021

Comprend désormais les lignes directrices de mise en œuvre adoptées en 2018 et les implications pour la législation et la politique nationales dans les pays en développement.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2021

In the course of the year, the Fellowship Programme held eight virtual events; and the Training and Support Programme held three regional Training Webinars. By far the most productive arm of the ecbi last year was the Publications and Policy Analysis Unit, which produced five Policy Briefs, eight Pocket Guides, four blog posts, and seven meeting reports.

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2021

Sharing experiences – particularly on the merits of different legislative approaches, lessons learnt, and good practices – can help drive efficient and successful implementation of climate action on the ground, and ultimately more ambitious action under the Paris Agreement. This policy brief considers the experience of four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that have completed or initiated the process of developing framework laws: Kenya (the first country in Africa to adopt a climate change framework law), Eswatini, Nigeria, and Uganda.

Author:
Constance Dlamini, Edward Wabwoto, Huzi Mshelia, Nkiruka Chidia Maduekwe, Bernard Namanya, and Pascale Bird
Publication Date:
March, 2021

As the global climate change negotiations shift to implementation mode, the institutions and process of the global negotiations will also have to adapt and become fit for purpose. This report proposes new arrangements that reflect this new role, particularly for the Conference of the Parties (COP). We propose that COPs should be slimmed-down in size considerably to deal with technical matters related to implementation. Political elements can be dealt with in processes outside the COPs that have already been established to support implementation on the ground – such as the Climate Action agenda, the Marrakech Partnership, the Regional Climate Weeks, and the technical meetings and workshops that support countries in formulating and implementing policies and measures in support of climate ambition.

Update: This report is referenced in the 27 October 2021 CarbonBrief UN Climate Talks Analysis: How delegations at COP climate summits have changed over time.

Author:
Benito Müller, Jen Allan, Matthias Roesti, and Luis Gomez-Echeverri with a Foreword by Marianne Karlsen, Chair of the SBI
Publication Date:
March, 2021

The term ‘response measures’ is not in regular use outside of the UNFCCC process, and is not easily understood by policymakers and stakeholders even within the process. This Guide aims to increase understanding of the topic, particularly among climate negotiators, to facilitate the UNFCCC negotiations on response measures.

Author:
Annela Anger-Kraavi and Nicholas Chan
Publication Date:
March, 2021

Les menaces créées par les changements climatiques se multiplient et les pays en développement vont avoir besoin de négociateurs capables de défendre leurs populations contre ces menaces. Ces guides de poche sont un apport à l’arsenal qu’il leur faudra déployer pour réussir. Nous espérons qu’ils seront utiles et que nous continuerons à recevoir vos retours d’information.

Author:
Erin Roberts & Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen
Publication Date:
March, 2021

At the Regional Training Webinar for the Caribbean which took place on 24 February 2021, ecbi trialled online "mock negotiations" to give trainee climate negotiators a taste of the real thing.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
March, 2021

Bulk purchasing technology under the non-market approaches (NMAs) defined in Article 6.8 of the Paris Agreement could help developing countries to reduce the costs of climate-friendly technology. This policy brief describes how such NMAs could allow groups of developing countries to drive down costs by pooling procurement, and using reverse auctioning to “discover” the lowest price.

Author:
Benito Müller, Axel Michaelowa & Anne-Kathrin Weber. Contributions from Diann Black-Layne, Rene Orellana Halkyer, and Saurabh Kumar
Publication Date:
March, 2021

At a webinar on non-market mechanisms (NMAs) under Article 6.8 of the Paris Agreement, organised by ecbi on 17 February 2021, the key architect of Article 6.8 explained that "non-market" need not exclude a role for the private sector.

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Publication Date:
February, 2021

The climate negotiations are strongly influenced, on all sides, by appeals to ‘listen to the science’. This Pocket Guide is aimed at both scientists and policymakers who are involved in the science-policy interface that underpins the negotiations. It provides guidance on questions such as what is meant by ‘climate science’? How do you know which ‘scientific’ voices to listen to? How do you balance scientific information against other relevant considerations?

Author:
Bob Scholes, Mary Scholes, Khothatso Mokhele, and Carlos Fuller
Publication Date:
February, 2021

ecbi Director Benito Müller presented the proposal for a Glasgow Ambition Cycle at the Technical Dialogue on Common Time Frames for Nationally Determined Contributions convened by Marianne Karlsen, SBI Chair, on 2 December 2020 as part of the 2020 UN Climate Change Dialogues.

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Publication Date:
December, 2020

Finance has always played a pivotal role in the global climate change negotiations, as an enabler of action but also as an indicator of the level of trust between developed and developing countries. It will continue to do so in the future – the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by many developing countries include elements whose implementation is conditional to the provision of financial and other support, and the discussions on finance for adaptation and loss and damage are likely to heat up in future as climate impacts increase. Over the years, the climate finance negotiations have acquired their own layers of complexity, accompanied by their own – often loaded – vocabulary. This Guide aims to help developing country climate negotiators navigate this complexity and understand what has gone by, to negotiate more effectively in future.

Author:
Anju Sharma, C. Therese Guiao, & Diann Black-Layne
Publication Date:
December, 2020

Agreement on the rules for "cooperative approaches" under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement will now not be possible until at least late 2021 because of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, countries will not be able to decide the role of cooperative approaches in their first Nationally Determined Contributions, which are meant to be finalised by the end of 2020 and implemented from the start of 2021. This policy brief summarises the progress made on Article 6 at the last UN Climate Change Conference in Madrid in 2019, and the key elements that still need to be agreed, to help negotiators and political leaders find common landing ground and resolve this issue by the end of 2021. Read it in conjunction with our 2019 policy brief of Article 6, which provides a more comprehensive explanation of each element.

Author:
Axel Michaelowa, Aglaja Espelage & Benito Müller
Publication Date:
December, 2020

An online training workshop for over 30 new climate negotiators from the Caribbean region was organised by ecbi on 17 November 2020. Ambassador Diann Black-Layne, from Antigua and Barbuda, the incoming chair of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), noted the continued role of ecbi training workshops in reducing the learning curve for new negotiators and helping the negotiating group maintain a strong position during the implementation phase of the Paris Agreement.

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Publication Date:
November, 2020

Includes 2019 Enhanced Lima Work Programme on Gender and its Gender Action Plan, and updated resources for incorporating gender in climate planning and action. 

Author:
Bridget Burns and Tara Daniel
Publication Date:
November, 2020

Senior negotiators on Article 6 discussed five "crunch" issues in the negotiations for the Paris Agreement's Article 6 rulebook during an ecbi Webinar on 15 October 2020, organised by ecbi. 

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
November, 2020

REVISED AND UPDATED. Your quick guide to the history of negotiations on capacity building under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the global institutional framework, and how global capacity building efforts can be improved. What can the UNFCCC do to promote long-term, sustainable capacity building where it is most needed? What has been done, and what remains to be done?

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Publication Date:
September, 2020

“We are coming to that point in time where we should and must settle the issue of common timeframes,” said Marianne Karlsen, Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI), in an opening address to the second webinar on common time frames organised by ecbi on 24 July 2020.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2020

Most countries will follow paragraph 24 of Paris Decision 1/CP.21 in the absence of agreement on an Ambition Cycle at the next climate conference. This comes with significant risks - not only to national ambition to address climate change and its impacts, but also to the process of assessing overall global progress, and of replenishing climate funds on the basis of national needs.

Author:
Benito Müller and Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
August, 2020

Training climate negotiators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
July, 2020

Reflections on the ecbi Training and Support Programme 15 years after it was initiated.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
July, 2020

Why an Ambition Cycle under the Paris Agreement matters, and why it matters now.
It is of paramount importance that the ambition modality be completed in Glasgow, not least to demonstrate to the world that the multilateral climate change regime is serious about enabling nationally determined ambition. The Glasgow Ambition Cycle provides an ambition-enabling modality by setting a cyclical timetable for these ambition milestones to take place in a meaningful manner, synchronised with the communication, implementation and stocktake cycles of the Agreement.

Author:
Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
July, 2020

Agenda

Author:
ecbi Executive Committee
Publication Date:
November, 2006

How are decisions arrived at under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change? What are the rules of engagement? Who are the different actors? Are decisions legally binding on countries? How are deadlocks resolved? This and more in our new guide to the hardware that drives the international climate regime. Know your L docs from your CRPs, and your informal-informals from your informals.

Author:
Dan Bondi Ogolla and Ian Fry
Publication Date:
July, 2020

Countries communicate their plans to implement the Paris Agreement through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). What should these NDCs contain? What “information to facilitate clarity, transparency, and understanding” do countries need to provide? How should countries account for their actions? What happens if they fail to meet their NDC goals? Read our updated Pocket Guide, which now includes the provisions of the Paris rulebook, to find answers to these and other questions related to NDCs.

Author:
Fatima-Zahra Taibi, Susanne Konrad, and Olivier Bois von Kursk
Publication Date:
June, 2020

New elements in the final reporting year for ecbi Phase IV included a mentorship programme for women, the publication of a Guide to the Paris Agreement, and a training workshop in the Caribbean. In addition to the usual Fellowship Programme and Training and Support Programme events, meetings were held on key issues that remain to be resolved under the UNFCCC, and the publications unit produced a record number of publications.

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Publication Date:
June, 2020

Leading climate negotiators highlighted the urgent need to complete work on the Paris Agreement’s “Ambition Mechanism” by resolving the issue of common time frames at the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), during a Webinar organised by ecbi on 20 May 2020. 

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2020

How has technology development and transfer (TDT) been dealt with under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement? What challenges do developing countries face in identifying and accessing technology needs for mitigation and adaptation, and how are these being addressed? What institutions deal with climate-related TDT at the global level? This Pocket Guide is for UNFCCC negotiators from developing countries, and for national policy makers who would like to understand how to access global support for climate-related TDT.  

Author:
Brianna Craft and Fred Onduri
Publication Date:
March, 2020

The international community has increasingly signalled a commitment to address gender issues in the global climate change negotiations, and in national-level implementation of climate action. This policy brief explores how this commitment has been put into practice, and identifies key challenges that still remain.

Author:
Margaux Granat, Emilia Reyes, and Bridget Burns
Publication Date:
March, 2020

New Guide to the Paris Agreement. Now includes the implementation guidelines adopted in 2018, and implications for domestic law and policy in developing countries. 

Author:
Edited by Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
March, 2020

At the 2019 Climate Change Conference in Madrid, Spain, crunch issues  – an unambiguous call for much higher climate ambition to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement, finance for the loss and damage caused by climate impacts, a fail-safe market mechanism that does not compromise environmental integrity, and credible financial contributions to enable action in developing countries – proved too difficult to resolve within the high-pressure, time-deficient confines of a COP, despite a two-day extension and the resilience and staying power of seasoned diplomats.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Axel Michaelowa, Aglaja Espelage, Jennifer Allan & Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January, 2020

The 2018 ecbi Pre-COP Training Workshop took place on 1 December at the Focus Hotel in Katowice, Poland. The Workshop was attended by 28 negotiators from least developing countries (LDCs), who were attending the 24th Conference of Parties (COP24) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The workshop, which was attended by the LDC Chair and a representative of the Polish COP Presidency, included sessions on LDC Group priorities for COP24; the Conference agendas; climate diplomacy, the Talanoa Dialogue, and high-level events; the Paris Agreement Work Programme; finance in Katowice; and tips for negotiating effectively.

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Publication Date:
December, 2018

The 2019 ecbi Pre-COP Training Workshop took place on 30 November at the Weare Chamartin Hotel in Madrid, Spain. The Workshop was attended by 19 negotiators from least developing countries, who were attending the 25th Conference of Parties (COP25) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

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Publication Date:
December, 2019

What makes it so difficult to reach a deal on market-based cooperation under the Paris Agreement?

Author:
Axel Michaelowa, Aglaja Espelage & Benito Müller
Publication Date:
December, 2019

A pilot Regional Workshop for the Caribbean, on 30 and 31 October 2019 in Tobago, was attended by 17 participants from the region. Sessions, mostly led by senior negotiators from the region, were held on the politics and science of climate change, loss and damage, mitigation and the NDCs, climate finance, the enhanced transparency framework, and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Mock negotiation sessions also took place, to give the trainees a chance to practice interventions in a formal UN-like setting.

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Publication Date:
October, 2019

The governance arrangements for the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage and its Executive Committee have been contested since the conclusion of negotiations on Article 8 of the Paris Agreement. Which supreme body – the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA), or both – is / are responsible for guiding their work? This brief addresses legal and practical aspects of the governance debate.

Author:
Doreen Stabinsky
Publication Date:
November, 2019

What's holding up the Article 6 negotiations? Can differences be resolved at the 25th Conference of Parties (COP25) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change? This policy paper explains the crunch issues in Article 6 negotiations in generally accessible language. It sheds light on the key differences between negotiating Parties on the eve of COP25 in Madrid. Understanding the issues and Party positions is a key step to identify solutions in these highly political and technically complex negotiations. 

Author:
Axel Michaelowa, Aglaja Espelage & Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2019

The 2019 Oxford Seminar took place from 11-13 September 2019, in the Oxford Town Hall. It was preceded by the ecbi Fellowship Colloquium, attended by 23 senior negotiators from developing countries (two participated virtually), from 9-11 September. They were joined by 20 senior negotiators from Europe for the Seminar. Opening the Seminar, the Lord Mayor of Oxford, Craig Simmons, described efforts to address climate change, including through declaring a climate change emergency in the city. 

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Publication Date:
September, 2019

A  brief introduction to climate finance

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
October, 2014

Conventional “CO2-equivalent” emissions calculated using 100-year “Global Warming Potentials” do not consistently reflect the impact of emissions on global temperature: they overstate the impact of constant emissions of any short-lived climate pollutant such as methane by a factor of about four, while understating the large impact of changes in methane emission rates. Myles Allen and Michelle Cain from the University of Oxford explain how CO2-e emissions can nevertheless be used to calculate “warming-equivalent” emissions to inform burden-sharing discussions, mitigation policies in crucial sectors such as agriculture, and stocktakes of progress towards a global temperature goal.

Author:
Myles Allen and Michelle Cain
Publication Date:
October, 2019

This flyer highlights the importance of bringing together all countries on the same page with a common NDC time frame, to enhance ambition and at the same time enable more equitable global outcomes.

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Publication Date:
August, 2019

The 2019 ecbi Regional Training Workshop for Asia and the Pacfic was held on 31 July and 1 August in Kathmandu, Nepal. The workshop, attended by 31 participants from the region, was organised in collaboration with Prakriti Resources Centre and hosted by the Ministry of Forests and Enviornment, Nepal. 

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Publication Date:
July, 2019

The 2019 ecbi Bonn Seminar was hosted by the City of Bonn in the Altes Rathaus on 23 June. It was attended by 40 climate negotiators from 30 developing and European countries. A welcoming address was delivered by Stefan Wagner, Head of the Department of International Affairs and Global Sustainability, City of Bonn. Discussions followed on common time frames; the collective quantified goal for climate finance and innovative sources; financing the transition to net-zero; and the Article 6 negotiations.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
July, 2019

Updated after Katowice, the 2019 version of this Pocket Guide takes into account the Paris rulebook agreed in 2018, to provide a succinct description and analysis of the new "enhanced transparecy framework" under the UNFCCC. The Pocket Guide aims to be useful for UNFCCC negotiators, and for national government representatives who have to translate and implement the transparency arrangements on the ground.

Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans and J.Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
June, 2019

The ecbi Regional Training Workshop for Anglophone Africa, on 2 & 3 May 2019 at the Harmony Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was organised in partnership with regional partner ENDA Energie. It was attended by 29 participants from the region, nominated by UNFCCC National Focal Points. 

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Publication Date:
June, 2019

The 2019 ecbi Regional Training and Support Workshop for Francophone Africa took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 29 April to 1 May. The workshop was attended by 32 participants from the region. This report highlights the key areas of discussion, which, in addition to an introduction to the history of the global climate negotiations, included thematic sessions on adaptation, Article 6, transparency, the global stocktake, and climate diplomacy in the year ahead. Mock negotiations and a session on formulating a group position gave participants a taste of the real negotiations.

 

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Publication Date:
June, 2019

A key strength of the ecbi has been the identification of potential roadblocks in the global climate negotiations, and efforts (often successful) to engage negotiators from across the spectrum to identify innovative ways to break the impasse. In 2018-2019, as the global negotiations on the Paris rulebook approached the endgame, we identified two such critical areas: common timeframes and Article 6 market mechanisms. These two issues, along with the continuing concerns regarding the adequacy and predictability of climate finance, formed the focus of our work during this year. 

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Publication Date:
May, 2019

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provides the foundation for the international response to climate change. This Pocket Guide seeks to summarise and explain the main provisions of the UNFCCC’s 26 Articles. It aims to look both forwards and back, outlining the origins of key clauses and drawing out those elements of current significance. This should allow for a better understanding of the existing rules, institutions, and procedures under the current climate change regime.

Author:
Joanna Depledge
Publication Date:
April, 2019

This Pocket Guide provides a brief history of the global community’s response to adaptation under the UNFCCC since 1992. Although the response has gathered pace in recent years, it has yet to gather sufficient momentum. In the 2015 Paris Agreement, attempts were made to correct the balance of attention between adaptation and mitigation. However, many of the concepts and metrics around adaptation still lack clear definition, and many challenges remain, in streamlining the global response to adaptation and providing vulnerable countries and communities the support they need to deal with one of the biggest challenges facing humankind today. 

Author:
Anju Sharma and Sara Venturini
Publication Date:
April, 2019

This Independant Evaluation of Phase IV of ecbi finds that the ecbi is currently meeting and often surpassing its agreed outcomes, and is also producing unplanned benefits, including networking for participants, informal support to unblock negotiations challenges, and sharing of information with participants’ colleagues. The ecbi also meets a unique need in the negotiations process.

 
Author:
Publication Date:
January, 2019

The 24th Conference of Parties (COP24) to the UNFCCC was an important milestone for the international climate change regime, expected to further animate the Paris Agreement by adopting the detailed rules for its implementation. Did the compromises that had to be made to accommodate the varied interests of 197 countries in Katowice add up to an adequate response to climate change? A succinct summary of key outcomes, with comments and quotes from the ecbi network of negotiators.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Christoph Schwarte, Pascale Bird, Axel Michaelowa and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January, 2019

The Dynamic Contribution Cycle, designed during the 2014 ecbi Oxford Seminar to maximise space for future ambition in the Paris Agreement, revisited in light of recent developments and submissions to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2018

The IPCC’s special report on Global Warming of 1.5°C recently highlighted the importance of early action against climate change. In this context, pre-2020 ambition becomes ever more critical. As the 2020 deadline approaches, this policy brief considers whether pre-2020 pledges on mitigation and climate finance have been met. It also provides an overview of the history of the pre-2020 negotiations; plans for upcoming sessions; key issues under discussion; and a set of key questions and recommendations for climate negotiators.

Author:
Alina Averchenkova and Dimitri Zenghelis
Publication Date:
October, 2018

The 2015 Paris Agreement was negotiated piece by piece, rather than as a whole document. As a result, although several pieces of the Agreement are closely related and even overlap, not all the linkages between them are logical or, at least as yet, coherent. Identifying and addressing the links between these different complex elements is essential for the overall coherence and effectiveness of the Paris outcome. This paper identifies links and gaps between the major elements of the Agreement.

Author:
Ian Fry and Manjeet Dhakal
Publication Date:
October, 2018

This discussion note finds that the rolling ‘updated 5 + indicative 5’ cycle with synchronised updating of the Dynamic Contribution Cycle which, as reflected in the submissions, has been receiving traction, is by far the best procedural bet for enhancing collective NDC ambition.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2018

The 2018 Oxford Seminar and Fellows Colloquium, from 13-17 August, focused on key concerns relating to the ongoing global negotiations on the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement, including: Paris rulebook expectations for Katowice; gender and climate change; linkages between Articles of the Paris Agreement; predictability of climate finance under the Paris Agreement (Article 9.5); the enhanced transparency framework; the collective quantified goal for climate finance; Talanoa Dialogue; non-market cooperative approaches (Article 6.8); Common Time Frames (Article 4.10); and climate change and human rights.

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2018

The ecbi 2018 South and Southeast Asia Regional Training Workshop was held on 6 and 7 June in Colombo, Sri Lanka. It was attended by 28 government representatives from 13 countries in the region. Participants were trained on issues such as becoming a better UNFCCC delegate; the year ahead in the negotiations; and how to participate in negotiations through mock negotiatiating sessions and sessions on formulating group positions. They were also informed of the state of negotiations in thematic areas of the Paris Agreement, such as adaptation, means of implementation, transparency, the global stocktake, and the compliance mechanism. 

Author:
Navam Niles
Publication Date:
July, 2018

Know your NDCs. This Pocket Guide takes you through the controversial beginnings of NDCs, to their current diversity; considers the challenges that countries are likely face in their implementation; and reflects on how best they can serve their ultimate purpose – that of achieving the long-term temperature goals of the Paris Agreement. 

Author:
Fatima-Zahra Taibi and Susanne Konrad
Publication Date:
May, 2018

The 2018 Bonn Seminar, on 6 May at the Oxford Club in Bonn, was attended by 45 participants from Europe and developing countries. They discussed issues of relevance to the development of the Paris Agreement Work Programme, including Article 6 market approaches under the Paris Agreement; common time frames; ambition and the Talanoa Dialogue; and predictability of climate finance.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2018

The 2018 Regional Training Workshop for Anglophone Africa took place from 9-11 September 2017 in Saly, Senegal. The workshop, hosted by ENDA Énergie, was attended by negotiators and national policymakers from countries in East Africa, appointed by national focal points to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In addition to training on key thematic areas of the UNFCCC negotiations and on the ongoing negotiations on the ongoing negotiations on the rules to implement the Paris Agreement, participants engaged in mock “negotiations” and formulating of group positions during workshop. 

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2018

At the 2018 Regional Training Workshop for Francophone Africa in Saly, Senegal, from 11-13 April, aspiring climate negotiators and national policy makers from West Africa recieved training from climate veterans from the region – including LDC Chair Gebru Jember, Madeleine Diouf Sarr, and Mamadou Hondia. Designed to include training workshops, support during negotiations, and bursaries for some negotiators, ecbi's Training and Support Programme also provides an opportunity for newcomers to the UNFCCC process to be mentored by senior negotiators

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2018

The three ecbi programmes had a particularly busy period this past year, producing nine seminars, four training programmes, eight policy briefs and notes; three pocket guides; and numerous meeting reports. Bursaries were provided to two junior negotiators, and technical support to senior negotiators from vulnerable countries.

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2018

Faisons-nous assez pour lutter contre le changement climatique? Les pays respectent-ils leurs engagements? La transparence constitue un élément clé pour pouvoir répondre à ces questions. Ce Guide de poche d’ecbi, mis à jour en janvier 2018, retrace l’évolution des arrangements relatifs à la transparence de la CCNUCC à l’Accord de Paris. Il concerne à la fois la transparence des mesures et de l’appui, et suggère des pistes d’amélioration pour ces deux éléments du régime climatique international.

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2018

This policy brief gives an account of how Article 6 of the Paris Agreement came into being, focussing in particular on the role of Brazil and the EU in the run up to Paris. It then seeks to clarify the basic concepts involved in the Article 6 debate, and proposes ways in which opposing positions on the opertionalisation of the market mechanisms can be reconciled.

Author:
Benito Müller with contributions by Túlio Andrade, Martin Hession, Kelley Kizzier and Jose Miguez
Publication Date:
April, 2018

Struggling to keep up with the loss and damage discussions under the UNFCCC? This ecbi Pocket Guide takes you through the basics, including definitions of the various kinds of losses and damages caused by climate change; the history of the loss and damage negotiations under the UNFCCC; the challenges faced in the negotiations; and the focus of the negotiations in the near future.  

Author:
Erin Roberts and Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen
Publication Date:
March, 2018

Quelle a été la contribution de la CCNUCC aux questions de genre? Elle a notamment adopté un Plan d'Action pour l'Egalité des sexes en 2017. Celui-ci est abordé dans la version mise à jour du Guide de poche. Découvrez comment le genre a été traité dans le processus de la CCNUCC et les liens établis avec le genre à travers les différentes thématiques (telles que l'atténuation, l'adaptation, la mise au point et le transfert de technologies) et éléments (tels que les contributions déterminées au niveau national) des négociations.

Author:
Bridget Burns, with inputs from Anju Sharma, Laura Hall, Vera Zhou and Stella Gama
Publication Date:
March, 2018

Now updated! The 2018 edition of the Pocket Guide on Capacity Building for Climate Change summarises the history of negotiations on capacity building under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, while providing a wider perspective on capacity building as an element of global cooperation. It is a ready reference to the key decisions that have already been adopted, and a brief analysis of how capacity building efforts can be made more effective in future, including under the Paris Committee on Capacity Building.

Author:
Mizan Khan, Ambuj Sagar, Saleemul Huq and Penda Kante Thiam
Publication Date:
February, 2018

What has the UNFCCC ever done for gender? Adopted a gender action plan in 2017, for one. This updated version of the Pocket Guide also covers the new action plan. Read all about how gender has been addressed in the UNFCCC process, and about gender linkages across the different themes (such as mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer) and elements (such as the nationally determined contributions) of the negotiations. 

Author:
Bridget Burns, with inputs from Anju Sharma, Laura Hall, Vera Zhou and Stella Gama
Publication Date:
February, 2018

To meaningfully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of ‘common time frames’, clarity is necessary on which common time frames one is referring to. In the context of nationally determined contributions (NDCs), there are essentially two possible interpretations of that phrase: a material one, and a procedural one. The material interpretation is about time intervals associated with the NDCs – to be precise, about target periods and implementation periods. The procedural interpretation is about timetables for communicating and updating NDCs. Both types of time frames might benefit ambition through a harmonisation. Since the debate on target and implementation periods is chiefly centred around the market-based collaborative approaches of Article 6, it is probably best not to bring it into the Article 4.10 debate. That debate, particularly in the context of how common time frames could help enhance NDC ambition, is therefore best focused on the procedural side of things. This Note highlights some of the problems with the NDC communication and updating process, as currently defined in paragraphs 23 and 24 of Decision 1/CP.21. It also summarises the advantages, for enhancing NDC ambition, of combining the two paragraphs into a common procedural time frame that has become known as the Dynamic Contribution Cycle. In practical terms, such a combination could be achieved in very simple terms, by: Requesting all Parties in 2025 to update their 2030 NDC and communicate an indicative 2035 NDC, and to do so every five years thereafter.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February, 2018
Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2006
Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2007

The 2008 ecbi Regional Workshop for South and South East Asia in Male was attended by participants from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2008

The 2017 Fellowship took place from 28 August to 1 September, hosting 24 ecbi Fellows – senior climate change negotiators from developing countries. On 30 August, the Fellows were joined by 24 European colleagues for the Oxford Seminar. This year, the Seminar was attended by, among others: representatives of the current (Morocco), the preceding (France), the incoming (Fiji) and the next (Poland) Presidencies of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; the Chairs of the LDC Group, the G77, as well as the Western European and Others Group; the Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice; the Co-Chair of the Standing Committee on Finance; members of the Green Climate Fund Board; representatives of the current trio of EU Presidencies (Estonia, Bulgaria and Austria), as well as representatives from the European Commission. 

Discussions during both events focused on key concerns relating to the ongoing global negotiations on the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement. In particular, participants focused on issues related to: gender; equity; common timeframes and the ambition cycles; the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue; global stocktakes; adaptation communications; transparency; finance; and the Article 6 Mechanisms.

H.E. Ambassador Deo Saran, Fiji’s Climate Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the European Union, in a keynote address, expressed his appreciation for the level of engagement in the Seminar. “I must say that the spirit of the seminar truly reflects the Talonoa spirit that we would like to bring at COP23,” he said. “It has been very enriching and will bring immense value to our preparation for the COP.”

• Seminar Group Photograph (5mb)
• Speech by Deo Saran
• Address by Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2017

On Thursday 31 August 2017, Oxford Climate Policy, on behalf of the European Capacity Building Initiative (ecbi) and the Oxford University Natural History Museum, hosted a special event for the participants of the ecbi Oxford Seminar. 

The Natural History Museum was the venue of a historic evolution debate on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, involving Samuel Wilberforce, the then Bishop of Oxford, and Thomas Henry Huxley, a biologist who defended Darwin's theory of evolution and had earned the epithet of “Darwin’s bulldog”. 

The event, named "We Meet Again!" in reference to the historic debate, brought together the current Bishop of Oxford, the Rt. Revd. Dr Steven Croft, and Professor Sir Brian Hoskins, Director of the Grantham Institute for Climate Change at Imperial College, London, and Professor of Meteorology at Reading University, to discuss the question: "What can we do to support the fight against global warming in the current climate?"

The transcript of the proceedings is now available for downloading.

• Oxford University Science Blog
• Transcript of proceedings
• The Oxford University Science Blog (pdf)

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2017

News coverage of ecbi event during the 2017 Oxford Fellowship and Seminar.

Author:
Natalie Brown
Publication Date:
November, 2017

Are we doing enough to address climate change? Are countries living up to their promises? Are some doing better than they pledged? Transparency is key for answering these questions. This ecbi Pocket Guide, updated in January 2018, traces the evolution of transparency arrangements under the UNFCCC right up to the transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. It addresses both transparency of action and of support, and suggests ways to strengthen both these important elements of the global climate regime. 

Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans, and J.Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
January, 2018

The Adaptation Communications can play a central role in identifying national needs and enabling international follow-up, while informing future action, driving ambition, and contributing information for the global stocktake. However, Parties to the Paris Agreement face a difficult balancing act while developing further guidance for the Communications, as they strive to make them useful and effective on one hand, and avoid placing an additional burden on countries (particularly those with limited capacity) on the other. This policy brief considers the challenges in light of the discussions that have taken place so far, most recently in Bonn in November 2017.  

Author:
Sven Harmeling, Alejandra López Carabajal & Irene Suárez Pérez
Publication Date:
January, 2018
Author:
Dr. Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Marianne Karlsen
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Stella Gama, In collaboration with Bridget Burns
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Orlando Rey, Achala Abeysinghe, Mbaye Diagne, Kaveh Guilanpour
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Sven Harmeling
Publication Date:
August, 2017
Author:
Túlio Andrade
Publication Date:
August, 2017

This Discussion Note considers how the idea of climate finance contributions from sub-nationals has evolved since the Paris Conference in 2015, and how it can be taken to the next level at the Global Climate Action Summit in September 2018.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January, 2018

Fiji's Prime Minister Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama, who presided over COP23, writes: "I wish to thank you for sharing the Pocket Guide to the Paris Agreement, which offers a very practical means to appreciate the key provisions and objectives of the Paris Agreement. It is certainly an excellent guide which was very handy for Leaders, politicians and experts alike... . I highly recommend your Guide to stakeholders at all levels of government, private sector, as well as civil society".

Author:
Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama
Publication Date:
December, 2017

The Chair of the UNFCCC's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) appreciates the role of OCP/ecbi in the COP23 decision on agriculture: "You invited the right negotiators and experts to these workshops. More importantly, as an "outsider" to the agriculture negotiations you asked the right probing questions at the workshops."

Author:
Carlos Fuller
Publication Date:
November, 2017

The 2017 ecbi Regional Training Workshop for Francophone Africa took place on 8 & 9 June 2017 in Dakar, Senegal. The workshop, organised in collaboration with ecbi’s regional partner Energie Environnment Développement (ENDA), was attended by 27 negotiators from the region. 

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2017

The European Capacity Building Initiative’s 2017 Oxford Seminar took place from 30 August to 1 September, in Oxford Town Hall. It was attended by 24 participants from developing countries (who also participated in the ECBI Fellowship Colloquium that was held from 28 to 30 August 2017, in Merton College), and 24 participants from Europe (see Annex). 

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2017

The 2007 ecbi Bonn Seminar was attended by 42 participants from 18 developing and 10 European Parties.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2007

This 2009 ecbi Bonn Seminar was held on 7 June 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn/Bad Godesberg, during the sixth session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA). Unlike previous meetings, this event was focused on a single theme: the future of climate change finance, with a focus on institutional and governance issues.  

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2009

The 2017 Asia Regional Training Workshop took place on 6 & 7 September 2017 in Negombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop, hosted by Janathakshan, was attended by over 30 “new” negotiators and national policymakers from countries in the region, appointed by national focal points to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In addition to training on key thematic areas of the UNFCCC negotiations and on the ongoing negotiations on the ongoing negotiations on the rules to implement the Paris Agreement, participants engaged in mock “negotiations” and formulating of group positions during the two days. Speaking at the opening of the event, Anju Sharma, head of the ecbi Publications and Policy Analysis Unit, noted that ecbi training workshops not only emphasise knowledge-sharing, but also the importance of social engagement to help negotiators step across defined national boundaries and positions, and work cooperatively to achieve common – and critical – goals

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2017

What will the new UNFCCC gender acton plan look like? This ecbi Pocket Guide explores how gender has been addressed in the UNFCCC process so far. It elaborates on gender linkages across the different themes (such as mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer) and elements (such as the nationally determined contributions) of the negotiations. 

Author:
Bridget Burns, Women’s Environment and Development Organization, with inputs from Laura Hall, Vera Zhou and Stella Gama
Publication Date:
October, 2017

La clé d’une mise en oeuvre réussie du renforcement des capacités dépendra en fin de compte d’une compréhension fine des besoins et des défis au sein de chaque pays. C’est ce qu’indique l’Article 11.2 de l’Accord de Paris, qui appelle à un renforcement “impulsé par les pays”, prenant en compte et suivant les besoins nationaux tout en favorisant l’appropriation par les Parties.

Author:
Mizan Khan, Ambuj Sagar, Saleemul Huq et Penda Kante Thiam
Publication Date:
April, 2017

Faisons-nous assez pour lutter contre le changement climatique? Les différents pays respectent-ils leurs engagements? Certains pays font-ils mieux que ce qu’ils ont promis ? La transparence est cruciale pour répondre à toutes ces questions.

Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans, et J. Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Ce guide est conçu pour accompagner les représentants gouvernementaux et non gouvernementaux participant aux négociations menées dans le cadre du Groupe de travail spécial de l’Accord de Paris (APA), ainsi qu’aux diverses Parties prenantes au niveau national, qui souhaitent comprendre ce que l’Accord de Paris signifie pour la mise en œuvre au niveau national. Les formulations de l’Accord sont ici rationalisées et simpliées et sont assorties d’une première analyse. 

Author:
Anju Sharma, Christoph Schwarte, Achala Abeysinghe et Subhi Barakat
Publication Date:
April, 2016

The 2017 ecbi Pre-COP Training Workshop took place on 4 November 2017, in Derag Livinghotel Kanzler, Bonn. Training sessions focused on: priorities for the Bonn Climate Change Conference; the COP23 agenda; gender; climate finance; negotiating effectively and mock negotiations; and the transparency framework.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
November, 2017

A brief on the need to balance flexibility and utility while develolping the guidance for Adaptation Communications at COP23 and beyond.

Author:
Sven Harmeling
Publication Date:
November, 2017

The 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, now called the Talanoa Dialogue, will address three questions: where are we now; where do we need to be; and how do we get there. It will include a preparatory phase and a political element. That much is clear, but key issues remain to be resolved. How will preparatory phase will feed into the political element? How can non-Party stakeholders engage effectively? What should the inputs and outputs of the Dialogue be? How can the Dialogue – which is a collective process – contribute to enhancing the climate ambition of individual Parties? This policy brief considers these issues, and offers suggestions for the way ahead.

Author:
Kaveh Guilanpour, Orlando Rey, Achala Abeysinghe & Mbaye Diagne
Publication Date:
November, 2017

Not satisfied with only a “National” Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Nepal pioneered a framework for Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) in 2011, and committed to ensuring that at least 80% of the financial resources available for climate change will be channelled to the local level.What lessons can Nepal’s experience in devolving climate finance and action offer to the international community, and in particular to the Green Climate Fund’s Enhanced Direct Access modality, which aims to promote sub-national, devolved access? This paper examines the National Climate Change Support Programme, a bilaterally-funded programme to develop and implement LAPAs in Nepal, to draw lessons for the GCF and for other developing countries.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Raju Pandit Chhetri & Dharam Uprety
Publication Date:
October, 2017

The 2017 ecbi Regional Training Workshop for Anglophone Africa took place on 5 & 6 June 2017 in Dakar, Senegal. The workshop, organised in collaboration with ecbi’s regional partner Energie Environnment Développement (ENDA), was attended by 24 negotiators from the region. 

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2017

Are we doing enough to address climate change? Are countries living up to their promises? Are some doing better than they pledged? Transparency is key for answering these questions. This ecbi Pocket Guide traces the evolution of transparency arrangements under the UNFCCC right up to the transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. It addresses both transparency of action and of support, and suggests ways to strengthen both these important elements of the global climate regime.

Are we doing enough to address climate change? Are countries living up to their promises? Are some doing better than they pledged? Transparency is key for answering these questions. This ecbi Pocket Guide traces the evolution of transparency arrangements under the UNFCCC right up to the transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. It addresses both transparency of action and of support, and suggests ways to strengthen both these important elements of the global climate regime.

Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans, and J.Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Are we doing enough to address climate change? Are countries living up to their promises? Are some doing better than they pledged? Transparency is key for answering these questions. This ecbi Pocket Guide traces the evolution of transparency arrangements under the UNFCCC right up to the transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. It addresses both transparency of action and of support, and suggests ways to strengthen both these important elements of the global climate regime.

Sous la CCNUCC - Flipbook, Francaise

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
May, 2017

ECBI Concept Note April 2005

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

ECBI Fellowship Programme November 2005

ECBI Fellowship Programme November 2005

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

ECBI 2005 Bangladesh Workshop

ECBI 2005 Bangladesh Workshop

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

ECBI 2005 Kenya Workshop

ECBI 2005 Kenya Workshop

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

ECBI Concept Note November 2005

ECBI Concept Note November 2005

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

The ECBI Kenya Workshop Participants, 2005

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2005

Feedback from the participants at the ECBI Kenya Workshop, October 2005

Feedback from the participants at the ECBI Kenya Workshop, October 2005

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Summary report of the Kenya ECBI workshop, 14 November 2005

Summary report of the Kenya ECBI workshop, 14 November 2005

Summary

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2005

SBSTA agenda item 3:on 5-years programme of work on adaptation

LDCs Workshop COP11 Montreal 24-25 November 2005. SBSTA agenda item 3:on 5-years programme of work on adaptation

Author:
Nagmeldin Goutbi Elhassan
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Financial Mechanism Issues - pre COP11 workshop to strengthen capacity of LDC Negotiators

Financial Mechanism Issues - pre COP11 workshop to strengthen capacity of LDC Negotiators. Montreal 24-25 November 2005.

Author:
M J Mace
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Capacity Building within the UNFCCC and LDCS - pre COP11 workshop.

Capacity Building within the UNFCCC and LDCS - pre COP11 workshop. Montreal 24-25 November 2005.

Author:
Richard Muyungi
Publication Date:
November, 2005

CDM Activity Cycle under the Marrakech Accords.

CDM Activity Cycle under the Marrakech Accords. Montreal 24-25 November 2005.

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
November, 2005

COP 11 LDC Workshop, Montreal - A brief history of the negotiations.

COP 11 LDC Workshop, Montreal - A brief history of the negotiations.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
December, 2005

Brief Overview of Legal Framework: UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. LDC Workshop, Montreal, 24-25 November

Brief Overview of Legal Framework: UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. LDC Workshop, Montreal, 24-25 November

Author:
M J Mace, Climate Change and Energy Programme
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Enhancing co-operation and promoting synergies among the Rio Conventions, Montreal, 24-25 November

Enhancing co-operation and promoting synergies among the Rio Conventions, Montreal, 24-25 November

Author:
Linda Siegele
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Compliance Issues - Kyoto Protocol; workshop for LDC Negotiators

Compliance Issues - Kyoto Protocol; workshop for LDC Negotiators, Montreal, 24-25 November

Author:
M J Mace
Publication Date:
November, 2005

SBI Agenda - National Communications A1 and Non-Annex I

SBI Agenda - National Communications A1 and Non-Annex I, Montreal, 24-25 November

Author:
M J Mace
Publication Date:
November, 2005

pcoming Issues for COP11/MOP 1 - ECBI Pre-COP Workshop to Strengthen Capacity of LDC Negotiators

Upcoming Issues for COP11/MOP 1 - ECBI Pre-COP Workshop to Strengthen Capacity of LDC Negotiators; Montreal, 24-25 November

Author:
M J Mace
Publication Date:
September, 2005

CONCERTATION FRANCOPHONE A LA CdP 11/RdP 1

CONCERTATION FRANCOPHONE A LA CdP 11/RdP 1, MontrÈal, Canada

Author:
Mama Konate
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Rainforests and Climate Change. MontrÈal, Canada

Author:
Sir Michael T Somare, Prime Minister
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Where is the CDMs future? Some critical observations and reform proposals. Fellowship event 2005

Author:
Sonja Butzengeiger
Publication Date:
January, 2005

The role of economics in climate change - policy instruments and long-term economic development. Fellowship event 2005

Author:
Fredrik Hedenus
Publication Date:
September, 2005

Senior Bursaries nominations letter, for Bonn 2006

Author:
Izabela Ratajczak
Publication Date:
February, 2006

Pre-COP11 workshop to strengthen the capacity of Least Developed Countries to negotiate and implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

Pre-COP11 Workshop to Strengthen the Capacity of Least Developed Countries to Negotiate and Implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

Author:
Publication Date:
February, 2005

Invitation Bonn 2006 Seminar

Author:
OCP
Publication Date:
April, 2006

ECBI Courtesy Phones

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2006

Adapting to climate, water and health stress: Insights from Limpopo, South Africa.

Author:
Gina Ziervogel, Frank Thomalla, Anna Taylor, Takeshi Takama, Claire Quinn, Mandla Msibi, Stockholm Environment Institute, University of Cape Town
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Differential Treatment in International Environmental Law

Author:
Dr Lavanya Rajamani
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Differential Treatment in International Environmental Law, Tables & Figures

Author:
Dr Lavanya Rajamani
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Mechanisms to Climate-related Risks: An Overview of SEI Activities

Author:
F. Thomalla
Publication Date:
September, 2006

AMMA_Periode_intensive_d_observation

Author:
MP Lefebvro
Publication Date:
August, 2006

AMMA_Climat_et_agriculture_en_Afrique_de_l Ouest

Author:
AMMA
Publication Date:
August, 2006

African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses

Author:
AMMA
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Africam Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses Introduction

Author:
AMMA
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Uncertainty & Confidence in Climate Change Prediction

Author:
Dave Stainforth
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Analyzing Resilience in Dryland Agro-ecosystems, Case Study, Tanzania

Author:
Elin Enfors
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Assessing Vulnerability & Adaptation to Climate-related Risks

Author:
Frank Thomalla
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Rechauffement Climatique les Nouveaux Resultats des Modeles Francais

Author:
METEO France
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Climate Change & Incentives for Energy Technology Innovation

Author:
Michael Grubb
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Third Overall Performance Study of the GEF

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Brief Concluding Remarks by Bo Kjellén, Senior Research Fellow, Stockholm Environment Institute.

Brief Concluding Remarks by Bo Kjellen, Senior Research Fellow, Stockholm Environment Institute

Stockholm and Oxford, September 2005

Author:
Bo Kjellén
Publication Date:
September, 2005

ECBI Annual Report for 2005/06, final version

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
April, 2006

Climate Change and Water in Africa, 2006 - Presentation by Mark New of OUCE.

Author:
Mark New
Publication Date:
September, 2006

ECBI Talk, 19 September 2005, by John Ashton - 'Confessions of an Escaped Climate Negotiator'.

ECBI Talk, 19 September 2005, by John Ashton - 'Confessions of an Escaped Climate Negotiator'

Author:
John Ashton
Publication Date:
September, 2005

About a judgment on the matter of Friends of the Earth, Inc and others versus officers of the OPIC and Ex-Im, both wholly-owned corporations of the United States government.

On the 23rd August, 2005, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California issued an order denying a motion for summary judgment (that is, allowing the case to continue to full trial) in the matter of Friends of the Earth, Inc and others versus officers of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) and the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im), both wholly-owned corporations of the United States government. Although received with far less fanfare, this judgement is an important milestone in a process that may ultimately have more impact on climate change than the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol.

attribution and Liability. Myles Allen, Department of Physics, University of Oxford

Author:
Myles Allen
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Climate_Change_Kyoto_Protocol_and_CDM_Status_and_Prospects_in_Nepal

Author:
KR Punjali D Khatiwada
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Climate_Change_Laos_IInthaboualy

Author:
I Inthaboualy
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Climate_Change_Cambodia_HCThoeun

Author:
HC Thoeun
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Climate_Change_ Bhutan_KDukpa&KTshering

Author:
K Dukpa & K Tshering
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Bangladesh_MShawkatAli

Author:
M Shawkat Ali
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Sri_Lanka_JRKDissanayake&AJayatilake

Author:
JRK Dissanayake &A Jayatilake
Publication Date:
August, 2006

CC_Pakistan_MRehman

Author:
M Rehman
Publication Date:
August, 2006

A_Brief_History&Looking_Ahead_BMuller

Author:
B Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Post_2012_Issues_SHuq

Author:
S Huq
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Lessons_from_CDM_Southeast_Asia_MKrey

Author:
M Krey
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Climate of Distrust - a paper on the 2006 Bonn Climate Change negotiations.

Climate_of_Distrust_2006_BMuller

The 2006 Bonn Climate Change Adaptation Fund Negotiations

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2006

South & Southeast Asia workshop proceedings, 2005

South&Southeast_Asia_Wkshop_Proceedings2005 - Climate Change Negotiations in South & Southeast Asia Workshop Proceedings 2005

Author:
BCAS
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Adaptation_Fund

Author:
ECBI Oxford Fellows 2006
Publication Date:
August, 2006

dna-buildingECBI8-06

Author:
A Michaelowa
Publication Date:
August, 2006

Adaptation_Funding_PWatkiss

Author:
P Watkiss
Publication Date:
August, 2006

SBSTA PROGRAMME OF WORK, Impacts ,Vulnerability and Adaptation

Author:
Emily Ojoo-Massawa
Publication Date:
November, 2005

Adaptation Fund

Presentation put together by Benito Müller

Author:
2006 ecbi Fellows and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Framework Challenges
Mitigation Challenge
Political Challenges
Process for Negotiation (AWG, Dialogue)
Significant issues at UNFCCC COP 12
Significant issues at Kyoto COP/MOP 2

Author:
MJ Mace, FIELD
Publication Date:
September, 2006

NAPA Experiences

First thoughts for the ECBI Workshop

Author:
Tom Downing, Balgis Osman Elasha
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Climate Chane

global phenomenon,impacts directly or indirectly on all the inhabitants of the world.

Author:
Rose Sirali
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Long-term carbon policy. Some policy options.

Some policy options

Author:
Dr Cameron Hepburn
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Bonn Seminar Report

Bonn Seminar Report

Author:
ECBI
Publication Date:
May, 2006

ECBI Bonn Seminar 2006

ECBI Bonn Seminar 2006

Author:
ECBI
Publication Date:
May, 2006

ECBI Senior Bursaries

ECBI Senior Bursaries

Author:
ECBI
Publication Date:
May, 2006

The second ecbi Regional Workshop for South and Southeast Asia was held in Rajendrapur, Bangladesh from 8 to 10 August 2006.

The second ecbi Regional Workshop for South and Southeast Asia was held in Rajendrapur, Bangladesh from 8 to 10 August 2006. Altogether 18 participants from 10 countries participated in the workshop.

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2006

The second ECBI Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa was held in the Great Valley Lodge, Naivasha, Kenya from 28 to 30 September 2006.

The second ECBI Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa was held in the Great Valley Lodge, Naivasha, Kenya from 28 to 30 September 2006. Altogether 25 participants from 11 countries participated in the workshop, including both UNFCCC Focal Points as well as representatives from ministries of Finance and Planning from a number of countries.

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2006

The 2006 ECBI Oxford Fellowships brought together 11 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows to engage in a number of trust-building activities.

The 2006 ECBI Oxford Fellowships brought together 11 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows from Bhutan, Brazil, China, India, Maldives, Mexico, Niger, South Africa, The Gambia, and Zambia, and negotiators from France, Germany, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, the Finnish EU Presidency and the European Commission between 24 August and 1 September to engage in a number of trust-building activities.

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2006

The 2006 ECBI Oxford Fellowships brought together 11 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows to engage in a number of trust-building activities.

The 2006 ECBI Oxford Fellowships brought together 11 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows from Bhutan, Brazil, China, India, Maldives, Mexico, Niger, South Africa, The Gambia, and Zambia, and negotiators from France, Germany, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, the Finnish EU Presidency and the European Commission between 24 August and 1 September to engage in a number of trust-building activities.

(ecbinet distribution only)

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2006

East and Southern Africa Workshop 2006

East and Southern Africa Workshop 2006

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2006

Future of CDM

Author:
Sonja Butzengeiger
Publication Date:
September, 2005

Convention Changements Climatiques et Protocole de Kyoto: lí aprËs 2012

Author:
MJ Mace, Field, UK
Publication Date:
October, 2006

Introduction au RÈchauffement Climatique

Author:
Claire N Parker
Publication Date:
October, 2006

Au nom de ma dÈlÈgation,Guide de survie des nÈgociateurs des pays en dÈveloppement sur le climat

Author:
Joyeeta Gupta
Publication Date:
October, 2006

The 2006 ecbi Oxford Fellowships and Seminar, at Trinity College.

2006 ECBI OXFORD FELLOWSHIPS AND SEMINAR 24/30 AUGUST - 1 SEPTEMBER 2006 TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD, UK

TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD, UK

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2006

A new proposal for Operationalising the Kyoto Protocolís
adaptation fund.

Operationalising the Kyoto Protocolís
adaptation fund: A new proposal

A new proposal

Author:
Amjad Abdullah, Bubu Pateh Jallow, Mohammad Reazuddin
Publication Date:
October, 2006

Rapport de lí Atelier rÈgional 2006 pour les pays francophones de líAfrique de líOuest

Rapport de lí Atelier rÈgional 2006 pour les pays francophones de líAfrique de líOuest

(French)

Author:
Mali Meteo, ECBI, IIED
Publication Date:
October, 2006

IATAL - An International Air Travel Adaptation Levy*

An International Air Travel Adaptation Levy*

Author:
Benito Müller and Cameron Hepburn
Publication Date:
October, 2006

The 2006 Francophone workshop held in October at Bamako, Mali.

2006 ecbi REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE WORKSHOP FOR WEST AFRICA 10- 12 OCTOBER BAMAKO, MALI. workshop flyer (English)

Author:
Mali Meteo, ECBI, IIED
Publication Date:
October, 2006

The West Africa francophone workshop held in October 2006 at Bamako.

ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi POUR LíAFRIQUE DE LíOUEST EN 2006 BAMAKO, MALI DU 10 AU 12 OCTOBRE,Fiche Atelier Mali

(French)

Author:
Mali Meteo, ECBI, IIED
Publication Date:
October, 2006

COP12-MOP2 side event flyer

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
October, 2006

COP12 MOP2 side event flyer2

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Adaptation Funding
Presentation put together by Benito M¸ller, at the ECBI, Oxford Seminar, 1 September 2006

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Adaptation Funding
Presentation put together by Benito M¸ller, at the ECBI, Oxford Seminar, 1 September 2006

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2006

CDM: ISSUES FOR CMP 2 AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS TO LDCS Presentation made to the LDC Negotiators Workshop, Nairobi, 3 November 2006

Author:
Richard Muyungi
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Adaptation Fund
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, Recalling Article 12, paragraph 8, of the Kyoto Protocol,

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2006

ECBI Introduction

Author:
Benito Müller, ECBI
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Elements of a Successful Negotiation

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Funding for Adaptationas of November 2006

Author:
Saleem Huq
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Preparing for the Next Meeting Nairobi

ìthe Briefî Checklist for the COP

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Making Interventions

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Ministerial Indaba Summary Fiji

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Post-2012 Issues under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Post-2012 Framework Challenges

Author:
MJ Mace, Field, UK
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Post-2012 Issues under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Post-2012 Framework Challenges

Author:
MJ Mace, Field, UK
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Brief Overview of Legal Framework:UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Author:
MJ Mace, Field, UK
Publication Date:
November, 2006

Upcoming Issues for COP 12 and COP/MOP 2

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2006

A letter reaffirming the work of ecbi, from Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Letter of Appreciation 2006

Author:
Mohammad Reazuddin
Publication Date:
December, 2006

Flying to new green heights

Author:
Jim Giles
Publication Date:
December, 2006

This is not a fight against nature. It is a battle against short-sighted egoism, a fight against unreasonableness and blindness. And, above all, it is a fight for solidarity.

Author:
Moritz Leuenberger
Publication Date:
December, 2006

The Opinion
"This is not a fight against nature. It is a battle against
short-sighted egoism, a fight against unreasonableness and
blindness. And, above all, it is a fight for solidarity." Moritz Leuenberger, President of the Swiss Confederation.

Author:
Moritz Leuenberger, President of the Swiss Confederation
Publication Date:
December, 2006

A letter reaffirming the work of ecbi, from the Gambia.

Letter of Apprecation, The Gambia

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2006

Pre-COP Workshop to Strengthen the Capacity of Least Developed Countries to Negotiate and Implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.

Pre-COP Workshop to Strengthen the Capacity of Least Developed Countries to Negotiate and Implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.

Author:
ECBI
Publication Date:
December, 2006

Unless a combination of all the success factors can be achieved, ASEAN countries will be able to attract some CDM niche investment but not be able to play in the CDM ëchampionsí leagueí.

Author:
By Dang Hanh and Axel Michaelowa
Publication Date:
April, 2007

Lessons Learned in Preparing National Adaptation Programmes of Action in Eastern and Southern Africa

ecbi Policy Analysis Report

Author:
by Balgis Osman-Elasha & Thomas E Downing
Publication Date:
May, 2007

Independent Evaluation of the ecbi

"the ecbi is judged to be a very good, effective programme. It fills a void

Author:
Rod Janssen
Publication Date:
May, 2007

A map of the world reflecting the participants and venues of the ecbi network.

Ecbi World map

ecbi 2004-07 map of participants and venues

Author:
Benito Müller & Izabela
Publication Date:
June, 2007

Among the issues discussed were Integration of climate change and development, a potential 'Bali package', and the governance of the Adaptation Fund.

On 13 May 2007, the ecbi Fellowship Programme held the second Bonn Seminar during the intersessional meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn, Germany to maintaining and strengthening the momentum of the trust-building activities of the Oxford Fellowships ñ particularly the North-South component. Among the issues discussed were Integration of climate change and development, a potential 'Bali package', and the governance of the Adaptation Fund

Author:
ECBI
Publication Date:
July, 2007

ECBI Bonn Seminar Report 2007

ECBI Bonn Seminar Report 2007

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2007

The focus of Phase I (2005-07) was on collaborations with countries from Europe (in the wider sense), the G5 (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), Sub-Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia. In Phase II (2008-12) it is planned to include Latin America.

A key limitation of the UN climate change negotiations is the lack of a level playing field between delegations, both North-South, and South-South. Other major obstacles to successful outcomes are mutual misunderstanding and lack of trust, particularly between industrialised and developing countries. The European Capacity Building Initiative (ecbi) is aimed at overcoming these limitations and obstacles through a number of capacity and trust building activities, subsumed under three complementary integrated Programmes.

The focus of Phase I (2005-07) was on collaborations with countries from Europe (in the wider sense), the G5 (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), Sub-Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia. In Phase II (2008-12) it is planned to include Latin America.

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
August, 2007

The political framework, The quantitative role of CDM post-2012, Aggregation of CDM, Policy CDM, Sector CDM, Programmatic CDM.

Author:
Axel Michaelowa
Publication Date:
September, 2007

POST-2012 AND FUTURE ACTION

Discussions based on the Sao Paulo Proposal for the BASIC project

Author:
Alejandra Lopez Carbajal (Mexico)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Post-2012 Scenarios

Elements of the BASIC Sao Paoulo Proposal

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2007

SOME MAJOR PROBLEMS TO IMPLEMENTING THE UNFCCC AND ITS KP

Author:
C. MOUSSOUNDA - Gabon Climate Change Focal Point
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Capacity Building Needs

Author:
Tran Thuc - Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Environment
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Adaptation Funding Needs Post 2012

Author:
Saleemul Huq (ecbi)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

CER Put Options (CERPOs)

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2007

ADAPTATION FUNDING

Author:
Enele Sopoaga (Tuvalu)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

The Road to Bali: An analysis of the Vienna Climate Talks

Author:
J¸rgen Lefevere (EC)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

How can international frameworks support domestic implementation?

Author:
Karsten Neuhoff (University of Cambridge)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Possible Post 2012 CDM Key Challenges

Author:
David Lesolle (Botswana)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries

Fellows¥ Recommendations; Oxford Seminar 2007

Author:
Manuel Estrada (Mexico)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Results of Discussion on Capacity Building Needs

Author:
Tran Thuc (Vietnam)
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Technology Transfer - RED and CDM

from Technical Session 4

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2007

This document provides on the one hand, a backpacker's guide to the negotiating context and on the other hand, sums up the key problems faced by negotiators and ways to deal with these problems.

Author:
Joyeeta Gupta, Institute of Environmental Studies, Amsterdam
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Nous avons prepare ce guide de poche quie decrit le contexte dans lequel se deroulent les negociations et ou sont resumes les principaux problems que rencontrent les negociateurs, le tout assorti de trucs et de conseils pour bien se tirer d'affaire.

Author:
Joyeeta Gupta, Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam
Publication Date:
September, 2007

The proposed project aims to strengthen the human resources and institutional capacity of Viet Nam, for effective negotiation, policy analysis and co-ordination of climate change activities.

The project is aimed upon three following problems:
- The need to develop and strengthen local know-how and expertise for climate change focal points on a continuing basis in order to comply with the national communication requirements of Viet Nam to the UNFCCC;
- Limited knowledge on the relationship between climate change mitigation strategies and the attainment of national sustainable development objectives in Viet Nam;
- Lack of co-ordination among ministries, agencies and institutions in areas pertaining to climate change;
In light of these decisions, the proposed project aims to strengthen the human resources and institutional capacity of Viet Nam, for effective negotiation, policy analysis and co-ordination of climate change activities.

Embassy File No: 104.Viet Nam.1.MFS.2-

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2007

Five of the 2007 Oxford Fellows have written an IIED/ecbi opinion piece on how the Adaptation Fund should be operated

Five of the 2007 Oxford Fellows, namely Enele Sopoaga (Tuvalu), Lydia Greyling (South Africa), David Lesolle (Botswana), Emily Massawa (Kenya), JosÈ Miguez (Brazil), have written an IIED/ecbi opinion piece on how the Adaptation Fund should be operated which will be one of the key questions to be sorted out in Bali, and which expands on the piece written by the 2006 Fellows: Operationalising the Kyoto Protocol's Adaptation Fund - a new proposal.

Operationalizing the Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund

Author:
Enele Sopoaga, Lydia Greyling, David Lesolle, Emily Massawa, José Miguez
Publication Date:
October, 2007

ADAPTATION ISSUES FOR UNFCCC COP 13 ñ BALI, INDONESIA,NOVEMBER 2007

Richard Muyungi,Assistant Director of Environment,Vice Presidentís Office Presented at a Workshop on Pre-UNFCC COP 13 Preparations for African LDCs,Bagamoyo, Tanzania, September, 2007

Author:
Richard Muyungi
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Climate Change: an Introduction

Author:
Claire N Parker
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Data and Information needs in developing countries ñ towards the UNFCCC Research and systematic observation

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Current activities relevant to a future agreement

Author:
Emily Massawa
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Post-2012 Issues under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, upcoming Issues for COP 13 and COP/MOP 3

Author:
MJ Mace
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Tech Transfer; RED and CDM

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
October, 2007

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism.

Technical Session 4: Technology Transfer; Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2007

Annual Report 2006/07

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
October, 2007

Compte Rendu de la Visite ‡ Paris dans le Cadre du Fellowship ecbi en Ao?t 2007

Compte Rendu de la Visite ‡ Paris dans le Cadre du Fellowship ecbi en Ao?t 2007

(French)

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
August, 2007

Oxford Fellowships flyer 2007 v1

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2007

Introduction to basics of Climate Change

Author:
Claire Parker, ecbi
Publication Date:
October, 2007

The 2007 regional workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa, held in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

2007 ecbi REGIONAL WORKSHOP FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA, 24 TO 26 SEPTEMBER 2007, BAGAMOYO, TANZANIA

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Session VI: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation

Author:
UNFCCC Secretariat
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries

Fellows¥ Recommendations, Oxford Seminar 2007

Author:
Oxford Fellows 2007
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Overview of ìAdaptationî Issues under UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Author:
Mohammad Reazuddin
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Informal Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change Bogor Presidential Palace, Indonesia 23-25 October 2007

Chair's Summary Notes

Author:
H.E. Mr. Rachmat Witoelar
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Post-2012 Issues under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Author:
Ilona Miller and M J Mace, FIELD
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Upcoming Issues for COP 13 and COP/MOP 3

Author:
Ilona Millar, M J Mace, FIELD
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Climate Change: an Introduction

Author:
Claire Parker
Publication Date:
November, 2007

The UN regime on the road to Bali

Author:
Claire Parker
Publication Date:
November, 2007

Adaptation Funding

Author:
Ambassador Enele Sopoaga
Publication Date:
November, 2007

ecbi side Event at COP13/MOP3, Bali Indonesia

invitation

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2007

BRIEF ON LDC EXPERT GROUP

LDC Workshop

29 to 30 November 2007

Bali, Indonesia

Author:
Chanel Iroi
Publication Date:
December, 2007

External Climate Change Meetings 2007

Pre COP Workshop for LDC Negotiators 29-30 November 2007 Bali, Indonesia

Author:
Ilona Millar
Publication Date:
December, 2007

Emissions Data and Trends from Developed and Developing Countries

Author:
Ilona Millar
Publication Date:
December, 2007

LULUCF Agenda Bali

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2007

Post-2012 Issues under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol for COP 13 and COP/MOP 3

Author:
MJ Mace
Publication Date:
December, 2007

Preparing for the Next Meeting

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2007

Upcoming Issues for COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol

Author:
M.J. Mace
Publication Date:
December, 2007

pre-COP13 Worskhop flyer

pre-COP13 Worskhop flyer

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2007

South and Southeast Asia Regional Workshop

South and Southeast Asia Regional Workshop

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
October, 2007

The 2008 Francophone workshop for West Africa, held in Dakar.

ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi Dakar, du 15 au 17 octobre POUR LíAFRIQUE DE LíOUEST EN 2008

(French)

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
October, 2008

The 2007 Francophone workshop for West Africa, held in Dakar.

ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi POUR LíAFRIQUE DE LíOUEST EN 2007

(French)

Author:
Publication Date:
March, 2008

Annual Report 2007/08

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
April, 2008

2008 Bonn Seminar Report

2008 Bonn Seminar Report

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
June, 2008

2008 ecbi Regional Workshop for South and South East Asia.

2008 ecbi Regional Workshop for South and South East Asia

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2008

Finance and Adaptation Finance

Reflections from the Oxford Fellowship Colloquium

Author:
Fellows
Publication Date:
September, 2008

THE MICROECONOMICS OF POST 2012 CDM

Author:
Dr Cameron Hepburn -Deputy Director, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment
Publication Date:
September, 2008

FUNDING SCHEME FOR THE BALI ACTION PLAN

A Swiss proposal for global solidarity in financing Adaptation

Author:
Mr Xavier Tschumi Canosa
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change

Author:
Erik Haites
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Financial Mechanism under the UNFCCC

Author:
Maria Netto, UNDP
Publication Date:
September, 2008

NORWEGIAN PROPOSAL

Climate Change Finance

Author:
presented by Erik Bjornbye
Publication Date:
September, 2008

International Air Passenger. Adaptation Levy-IAPAL-

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2008

SBSTA Agenda item 5: Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: approaches to stimulate action

Author:
David Lesolle
Publication Date:
September, 2008

POST-2012 ISSUES:DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVES

Author:
Emily Massawa
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable

Author:
Emily Massawa
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Future of CDM

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Climate Change: an Introduction

basic climate science

Author:
Claire Parker
Publication Date:
September, 2008

The UNFCCC & Kyoto Protocol - key issues in the negotiating process from Bali (2007) to Copenhagen (2009)

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2008

China's Perspectives on Financial Mechanism of Climate Change for post 2012

Author:
Xianliang YI
Publication Date:
September, 2008

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy-IAPAL-

A Real Boost to the Adaptation Fund

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
September, 2008

Mexican proposal

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2008

2008 ecbi Oxford Fellowships & Seminar

2008 ecbi Oxford Fellowships & Seminar

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2008

2008 ecbi Oxford Fellowships and Seminar Report

2008 ecbi Oxford Fellowships and Seminar Report

During the Colloquium, the Fellows discussed in detail issues of particular relevance at this stage of the UNFCCC negotiation process: finance and adaptation; the future of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); technology transfer under the Bali Action Pan and the implementation of paragraph 1.b of the Bali Action Pan. The Fellowship Colloquium was followed by the Oxford Seminar from 5 to 7 September at the Oxford Town Hall. This gave the Fellows the opportunity to engage in discussions with their European colleagues. 

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2008

Botswana Regional Workshop, 2008

53Botswana_Regional_Workshop

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
November, 2008

ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi POUR LíAFRIQUE DE LíOUEST EN 2008

(French)

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
December, 2008

Letter of Appreciations

Author:
Richard Muyungi
Publication Date:
February, 2009

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
April, 2009

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
April, 2009

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL): A proposal by the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) within the framework of the Bali Action Plan, submitted to the UNFCCC AWC-LCA on 12 December 2008; with Thirteen Questions and Answers compiled by Benito M¸ller

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL): A proposal by the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) within the framework of the Bali Action Plan, submitted to the UNFCCC AWC-LCA on 12 December 2008; with Thirteen Questions and Answers compiled by Benito M¸ller

A proposal by the Group of LDCs within the framework of the Bali Action Plan

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
April, 2009

The ecbi Annual report summarizes activities undertaken in period April 2008 to April 2009, carried out by the Fellowship Programme and the Workshop Programme of the ecbi. This report is divided into three sections. The first section provides an overview of all major capacity and trust-building activities. The second section summarizes the ecbi policy briefs and the content of the ecbi website.

Author:
Izabela Ratajczak-Juszko
Publication Date:
May, 2009

Funding Scheme for the Bali Action PlanOverview of the Swiss Proposal

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2009

The Reformed Financial Mechanism II
Section II. Independent Oversight

Author:
Müller, Gomez-Echeverri, Huq, Chandani
Publication Date:
June, 2009

The Princeís Rainforests Project

Author:
Paul McMahon
Publication Date:
June, 2009

A future climate financing architecture ñ an opportunity for radical change?

Author:
Hannah Ryder
Publication Date:
June, 2009
Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri,
Publication Date:
June, 2009

The Reformed Financial Mechanism II; Section III. Compliance Oversight

The Reformed Financial Mechanism II; Section III. Compliance Oversight

Part II The Question of Oversight, Post Copenhagen Synthesis Report

Author:
Benito Müller, with contributions by Anju Sharma, Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Dane P. Rook and Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
June, 2009

This ecbi Policy Brief is based on the presentations and discussion at the 2009 round of the annual ecbi Bonn Seminars held on 7 June 2009

This ecbi Policy Brief is based on the presentations and discussion at the 2009 round of the
annual ecbi Bonn Seminars held on 7 June 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn/Bad Godesberg,
during the sixth session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action
(AWG-LCA). Unlike previopus meetings, this event was focused on a single theme, namely
the future of climate change finance, with a focus on institutional and governance issues. For
this reason it was also decided to replace the usual proceedings with a more analytic policy
brief, based also on the draft negotiating text on enhanced action on the provision of
financial resources and investment that emerged from the negotiations.

Author:
Müller, B
Publication Date:
June, 2009

Taxe sur le transport aerien de passagers en faveur de l'adaptation (IAPAL)

PROPOSITION DU GROUPE DES PAYS LES MOINS AVANCES (PMA) dans le cadre du Plan díACTION DE BALI Soumise ‡ la CCNUCC AWG-LCA le 12 dÈcembre 2008avec Treize Questions/rÈponses - Taxe sur le transport aerien de passagers en faveur de l'adaptation (IAPAL)

Author:
Compilees par Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2009

Un mÈcanisme financier concu et fonctionnant de faÁon adÈquate, capable de faciliter le financement et díencourager des ressources nouvelles et additionnelles de maniËre transparente, responsable, efficace et effective est Ègalement perÁu comme essentiel.

Le consensus sur une action visant ‡ aborder les changements climatiques repose sur le principe
des responsabilitÈs communes mais diffÈrenciÈes et sur les obligations et engagements ÈnumÈrÈs
‡ líArticle 4 de la Convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques
(CCNUCC). Líune des principales caractÈristiques de cet Article concerne líengagement pris par
les pays dÈveloppÈs de soutenir les efforts des pays en dÈveloppement. Le fait de parvenir ‡ un
accord quant ‡ la maniËre díaborder cette obligation est gÈnÈralement considÈrÈ comme líune
des clÈs du succËs ‡ Copenhague, ‡ la fin de cette annÈe. Un mÈcanisme financier conÁu et
fonctionnant de faÁon adÈquate, capable de faciliter le financement et díencourager des
ressources nouvelles et additionnelles de maniËre transparente, responsable, efficace et effective
est Ègalement perÁu comme essentiel.

Architecture at gouvernance

Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
July, 2009

A new ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance, 2009.

Based on the proceedings of the ecbi meeting on 9 August 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn, a new ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance has been published, together with written answers by the UK participants to the questions put by Anders Wijkman, the moderator of the meeting.

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2009

REDD. 2009 ecbi Oxford Fellows

Author:
2009 ecbi Oxford Fellows
Publication Date:
September, 2009

Climate Change Finance Sources, Institutions, and Governance

2009 Fellows Presentation on Finance

Author:
2009 ecbi Oxford Fellows
Publication Date:
September, 2009

Adaptation Financing post 2012. Some thoughts

Author:
Saleemul Huq (Senior Fellow, Climate Change Group, International Institute for Environment and Development)
Publication Date:
September, 2009

Workshop Report. West Africa, Dakar, Senegal 2009

Workshop Report. West Africa, Dakar, Senegal 2009

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2009

Negotiating the Development and Transfer of Technologies for a Copenhagen Outcome: Issues for Consideration.

Author:
Klein, Diarra, Lessolle
Publication Date:
September, 2009

Climate Change Finance. Proceedings of the 2009 Oxford Fellowship and Seminar

Climate Change Finance. Proceedings of the 2009 Oxford Fellowship and Seminar

Climate Change Finance

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2009

Report on Regional Workshop for East and Southern Africa in Ethiopia, 2009

Report on Regional Workshop for East and Southern Africa in Ethiopia, 2009

Author:
IIED
Publication Date:
September, 2009

Equidad

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2009

Financiamiento

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2009

Introductory session

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2009

REDD

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2009

Transferencia de Tecnologia

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2009

Bonn III Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries.

Bonn III Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Author:
IIED
Publication Date:
October, 2009

2009 ecbi Informe sobre el Taller Regional del ecbi para el Desarrollo de Capacidades para las Negociaciones de la ConvenciÛn Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Clim·tico, Bolivia.

2009 ecbi Informe sobre el Taller Regional del ecbi para el Desarrollo de Capacidades para las Negociaciones de la ConvenciÛn Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Clim·tico 17-19 de Agosto de 2009, La Paz, Bolivia

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2009

Bangkok Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Bangkok Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Author:
ecbi/IIED
Publication Date:
October, 2009

Clean_Energy_Finance_Dinner_Discussion_1Nov2009[1][1].pdf

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2009

The report by Benito Müller looks at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen and evaluates what happened and suggests what lessons ought to be learned.

It has been said that summits are either 'successful' or 'very successful'. The time has come to face the facts: this is wrong! That is not to say that Copenhagen was a failure, but merely that it could have done better, but still probably passed the test. The final verdict will depend on what happens next. The report by Benito M¸ller looks at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen and evaluates what happened and suggests what lessons ought to be learned.

Failure or final wake-up call for our leaders?

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February, 2010

A policy brief proposing a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period.

A policy brief proposing a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period.

Post Copenhagen Architecture and Governance

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2010

The 'institutionalized' group of Friends of the Chair is composed of delegates trying to influence the Chairman and each other about the way forward, reflecting national positions, and trying to hammer out compromises.

In the preparations for the Copenhagen COP-15 and in the aftermath of the confusing negotiations in Bella Centre there have been many references to the concept of Friends of the Chair. The 'institutionalized' group of Friends of the Chair is composed of delegates trying to influence the Chairman and each other about the way forward, reflecting national positions, and trying to hammer out compromises. This is a long-haul effort which is different from the idea of appointing Friends of the Chair as part of the end game of a negotiation: in this latter case it is ideally a method for the Chairman to get the most important actors to agree and clinch a deal that will lead to final agreement in the plenary.

The Art of Negotiation in the Rio process and climate negotiations

Author:
Bo Kjellén
Publication Date:
April, 2010

A preparatory meeting on forming an informal, open ended Circle of Experts on climate finance architecture and governance (Finance Circle) facilitated by the European Capacity Building Initiative (ecbi) was held in Salon Planck in the Maritim Hotel, Bonn

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2010

The Missing Legal Link in the Bali Action Plan and Tom Ruys

Author:
Benito Müller, Wouter Geldhof
Publication Date:
May, 2010

Annual Report 2009/10

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
May, 2010

On the 7th June 2010, the ecbi Fellowship Programme held the third Bonn Seminar gathering together 25 delegates, during the intersessional meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn, Germany to maintaining and strengthening the momentum of the trust-building activities of the Oxford Fellowships ñ particularly the North-South component. Report is comming soon.

Thought on the Process

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2010

The Dakar Resolution came out of the ecbi West Africa Regional Workshop held in July 2010, Senegal. It was prepared and signed by the Honourable parliamentarians who attended the workshop. The English translation is also available on the ecbi website.

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2010

The Dakar Resolution came from the ecbi West Africa Regional Workshop, held in July 2010, Senegal. It was prepared and signed by the Honourable parliamentarians who attended the workshop. The original French version is also available on the ecbi website.

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Adaptation Fund under KP

Mature for concrete implementation of projects and direct access

Author:
Sven Harmeling, Alpha Oumar Kaloga
Publication Date:
June, 2010

Adaptation Under the UNFCCC

Author:
Sumaya Zakieldeen, FIELD
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Adequacy of Copenhagen Mitigation Pledges

The Case for Low Carbon Development Strategies

Author:
Liberal Seburikoko, Michiel Schaeffer, Laetitia De Marez, Bill Hare, Kirsten Macey, Claudine Chen, Joeri Rogelj
Publication Date:
July, 2010

The Climate Change Negotiations: REDD plus

English

Author:
Joy Hyvarinen, Abdalla Gaafar
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Les promesses de rÈductions díÈmissions de Copenhague sont- elles suffisantes?

Arguments en faveur des strategies de developpement - basses emissions

Author:
Liberal Seburikoko, Michiel Schaeffer, Bill Hare, Kirsten Macey, Claudine Chen, Joeri Rogelj, Laetitia De Marez
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Les nÈgociations sur les changements climatiques: REDD-plus

(French)

Author:
Joy Hyvarinen Abdalla Gaafar
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Climate Financing for Developing Countries

A post-Copenhagen Synopsis

Author:
Momodou Njie, Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Unilateral Declarations

The Missing Legal Link in the Bali Action Plan

Author:
Benito Müller, Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys
Publication Date:
May, 2010

DÈclarations unilatÈrales

Le chaónon juridique manquant au sein du plan d'action de Bali

Author:
Benito Müller, Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys
Publication Date:
May, 2010

Transfert de technologies: Quel mecanisme (French)

Quel mecanisme

Author:
Birama DIARRA
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Africa Strategy in the UN climate negotiations

Author:
Tosi Mpanu Mpanu
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Legal Form & Function in the International Climate Change Regime

Author:
Lavanya Rajamani
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Engaging Private Sector Investment at Scale for Climate Change Mitigation in Emerging Economies

Insights from a GtripleC Project funded

Author:
Murray Ward
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Some Thoughts on the Process

Improving the UNFCCC negotiating process and identifying options for approaching the High Level Segment

Author:
ecbi Fellows 2010
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Reforming the Financial Mechanism

Some thoughts put together by the 2010 ecbi Fellowship

Author:
ecbi Fellows 2010
Publication Date:
August, 2010

National Funding Entities

Their Role in the Transition to a New Paradigm of Global Cooperation

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Presentation to the Geneva Dialogue on Climate Finance

Oversight of Climate Financing

Author:
Farrukh Khan
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Mueller_Climate_Finance_Marrakech

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2016

ìFastî Start Finance

Author:
ecbi Fellows 2010
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Institutional Arrangement for Adaptation

Author:
Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
August, 2010

How many people does it take?

Administering New and Additional Climate Finance

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Measuring, Reporting and Verifying Mitigation Actions by Developing Countires

Author:
Paula Castro
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Unsure and Unswearing Negotiations of Financing

Author:
Xianliang YI
Publication Date:
August, 2010

Private Sector Finance II

Author:
Steven Gray
Publication Date:
August, 2010

The Reformed Financial Mechanism

The General Blueprint

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2010

WhathappenedonthewaytoandinCopenhagenandwhatarethe consequences.ppt

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2010

AfricaStrategyintheUNclimatenegotiations

Author:
Tosi Mpanu Mpanu
Publication Date:
July, 2010

ApprochessurlesquestionsdeFinances

Author:
Mamadou Honadia
Publication Date:
September, 2010

Transfertdetechnologies

Author:
Birama Diarra
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Adaptation

Author:
Sumaya A. Zakieldeen
Publication Date:
March, 2010

Climate Governance.ppt

Author:
Emily Ojoo-Massawa
Publication Date:
March, 2010

Lessons learnt and next steps in the Negotiations.ppt

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
March, 2010

Les promesses díattÈnuation de Copenhagen

De la nÈcessitÈ de joindre líacte ‡ la parole

Author:
Liberal Seburikoko
Publication Date:
July, 2010

Vers un accËs aux ressources du fonds pour líadaptation

Author:
Kaloga Alpha Oumar
Publication Date:
July, 2010

ecbi Oxford Seminar 2010 report back.

ecbi Oxford Seminar 2010

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
August, 2010

2010 Bonn Seminar report and feedback.

2010 Bonn Seminar

Legal Form of a Future Outcome, and the UNFCCC Negotiating Process

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2010

This paper provides useful background in the forthcoming discussions and negotiations of the UNFCCC with respect to devolution of funding decisions.

The future of the global climate change negotiations hinges on an eventual UNFCCC globally embraced decision on climate change funding support for developing countries. Leading up to Copenhagen, some positive signs on funding emerged. However, these are in danger of turning into empty promises if issues of governance on finance are not resolved. This paper provides useful background in the forthcoming discussions and negotiations of the UNFCCC. Part of a wider series of ecbi and OIES publications on the Reformed Finance Mechanism, most specifically on the case for devolution of funding decisions to the national level.

Their role in the transition to a new paradigm of global cooperation on climate change

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
October, 2010

National Funding Entities

Their role in the transition to a new paradigm of global cooperation on climate change

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
October, 2010

This brief investigates the current levels of full-time equivalent staff in some major international development agencies re. climate finance.

This brief investigates the current levels of full-time equivalent staff in 11 major international development agencies to provides a rough and conservative estimate of the number of staff that will likely be needed to administer and carryout development work with the new and additional climate finance.

Author:
David Ciplet, Benito Müller, J. Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
October, 2010

What would be a successful outcome of COP 16 in Cancun as concerns climate finance?

What would be a successful outcome of COP 16 in Cancun as concerns climate finance? The aim of this paper is to assess how the momentum achieved in Tianjin can be harnessed to deliver the sort of outcomes required for a comprehensive deal.

How to reach a deal at Cancun?

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2010

Funding under the authority and guidance Funding NAPAs through CIF

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund What lessons for other developing countries

Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

NAPA Experiences bringing into Climate Change Negotiations

Status and Initiatives in Nepal

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

Capacity Building - What is on in UNFCCC Negotiations

What is on in UNFCCC Negotiations

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

IntroductiontoLDCstrategy

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

Legalissuesinthenegotiations

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

REDD in Climate Change negotiation and possible expected outcomes in Cancun

and possible expected outcomes in Cancun

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

TechnologyTransfer

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

Mitigation

Tricky targets Mitigation negotiations under KP

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2010

The Role of Political Agreement in a Legally Binding Outcome

Author:
Nick Flynn and Nicola Peart
Publication Date:
November, 2010

GHG Emissions and the Kyoto Protocol

Author:
Gebru J. Endalew
Publication Date:
December, 2010

Phase I & II Outcomes and Impacts

Author:
Publication Date:
January, 2011

ecbi Phase II Evaluation

Author:
Rod Janssen
Publication Date:
January, 2011

2010 ecbi Regional Workshop for Latin America

Author:
Publication Date:
February, 2010

ecbi Regional Workshop for West Africa

Author:
Publication Date:
July, 2010

ecbi Regional Workshop for East and South Africa

Author:
Publication Date:
March, 2010

On 26th of November, ecbi held its first Pre-COP workshop for South and South East Asian Negotiators in Cancun, Mexico, which was attended by 20 delegates representing Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Cambodia. The presentations were on the issues of adaptation, finance, loss and damage, and capacity building and particularly focused on possible outcomes at COP 16.

Author:
Hohit Gebreeg, Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
May, 2011

ecbi Annual Report 2010/2011

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2011

Transitional Committee for the Design of the Green Climate Fund - Workstream II

Mandate, Status of Work and Work Plan

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2011

Long-term Finance Sources

Author:
Erik Haites
Publication Date:
June, 2011

2011 Bonn Seminar

Form and function of the Standing Committee and the Transitional Committee, and long-term finance

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2011

Policy Brief is to outline some ideas of what functions the Standing Committee should have, and what form it should take.

Policy Brief is to outline some ideas of what functions the Standing Committee should have, and what form it should take.

Operationalizing the Standing Committee

Author:
Farrukh Iqbal Khan and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Apercu des tractations vers Durban

Author:
Mamadou HONADIA
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Towards an African Roadmap to Durban

The African Position for the 17th COP of the UNFCCC in Durban, South Africa

Author:
Tosi MPANU-MPANU
Publication Date:
August, 2011

LDC Strategy in the UNFCCC Negotiations

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Adaptation au changement climatique, Quel progrÈs depuis Copenhage

Author:
Ndéye Ftou Diaw GUENE
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Gender considerations in climate change negotiations

Author:
Sandra FREITAS
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Mitigation GHG Emissions

What is New in the UNFCCC Negotiations?

Author:
Sandra FREITAS
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Climate Finance 2011

A Stocktaking

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Legal Options for Addressing a Gap Between Kyoto Protocol Commitment Periods and Implications of a Gap

Author:
Achala Chandani Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
August, 2011

To be used for the Fellowship Presentations

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2011

This brief puts forward detailed recommendations concerning the functions and the form of the Standing Committee defined at Cancun.

At Cancun, the COP decided to establish a Standing Committee to assist it in exercising its functions with respect to the Financial Mechanism of the Convention. But it left open how exactly this should be done. The ecbi Policy Brief by Farrukh Khan and Benito M¸ller begins by looking at the COP functions which the Standing Committee is meant to assist considering, in particular, how such assistance could enhance the implementation of the Financial Mechanism. Based on this analysis, the brief puts forward detailed recommendations concerning the functions and the form of the Standing Committee.

Operationalizing the Standing Committee

Author:
Farrukh Iqbal Khan and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2011

The Centre for Policy Research held a discussion on The EU Aviation Scheme & International Law on Friday, the 5th of August 2011. The topic was introduced by Lavanya Rajamani, Professor, and chaired by Navroz Dubash, Senior Fellow, CPR. This discussion was†a part of CPR's Climate Initiative as well as its International Law Seminar Series.

CPR Discussion

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2011

2011 ecbi Fellows Colloquium: Programme

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Trade tactic could unlock climate negotiations - Legality of export tariffs

Author:
Benito Müller and Anju Sharma (with LRI brief)
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Submission to the Transitional Committee on the issue of Thematic Funding Windows (Workstreams II & III)

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2011

Direct Access: Some Etymology

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Enhanced Direct Access

The Approach of the Global Fund

Author:
Katja Roll
Publication Date:
September, 2011

National Climate Finance Institutions Support Programmes

Author:
Clifford Polycarp
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Adaptation Committee

Form, Functions and Relation to Other Bodies

Author:
Lucas Di Pietro Paolo
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Climate Finance 2011

A Stocktaking

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Gender and Climate Change

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2011

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL)

Aviation as an Instrument for Climate Financing

Author:
Muyeye Chambwera, Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Loss and Damage in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change

Author:
Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen, Koko Warner
Publication Date:
September, 2011

The "legal form" Discussions under the AWGs

Focus on the Second KP Commitment Period and the Future of the KP

Author:
MJ Mace
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Issues in MRV/ICA/IAR

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
September, 2011

National Institutional Arrangements for Climate Change Action

Mitigation and Adaptation

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Options for Increasing the Level of Mitigation Ambitions in the Short-Term

Author:
Spencer Thomas
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Negotiation Issues Concerning NAPs

LDC Perspective

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
September, 2011

Climate Finance 2011

Operationalising the Standing Committee

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2011

ecbi Regional Workshop for West Africa, Senegal 2011

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Report of the 2011 Oxford Seminar

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2011

Status of Negotiations at the End of Panama Session

Author:
Margaret Mukahanana Sangarwe
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Plan C

Switching Track to the Kyoto Protocol

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Legal issues and options for COP 17

Author:
Achala Chandani Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Update on LDC Strategy

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
October, 2011

ëPlan Cí

The Role of the Kyoto Protocol in a Legally Binding Outcome

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Summary of the Outcomes for the Least Developed Countries Group

Update from the UNFCCC Panama session

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Update on the work of the Transitional Committee for the Design of the Green Climate Fund

Author:
Carol Mwape
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Boosting and Balancing Adaptation Finance

Is IAPAL an Opportunity or Risk for LDCs

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Bangladesh Climate Change Fund

Author:
Munjurul Hannan Khan
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Current Negotiations on Mitigation Commitments by Developed Countries and Mitigation Actions by Developing Countries

Author:
Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
October, 2011

National Adaptation Plans

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Matters relating to LDCs and work of LEG

Author:
Onduri Machulu Fred
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Adaptation Draft Text from Panama

Author:
Munjurul Hannan Khan
Publication Date:
October, 2011

Dar for Common Goal on Climate Change

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2011

An American predicament that threatens the Green Climate Fund

Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju, Fred Onduri Machulu, Munjurul H. Khan, Carol Mwape and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2011

ecbi Regional Workshop: South Africa, East Africa and Asia

Author:
Euster Kibona, Kaijage Erneus, Linda Kiluma
Publication Date:
December, 2011

Background paper of the UNFCCC negotiations and how risk is addressed.

Background paper of the UNFCCC negotiations and how risk is addressed.

An Overview of the UNFCCC Negotiations

Author:
Koko Warner and Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen
Publication Date:
February, 2012

The 2011/12 ecbi Annual Report highlights our efforts over the past year to strengthen capacity and trust between North-South, and South-South positions in the emerging climate change regime. This is achieved through three programme areas: the trust-building Fellowship Programme with an informal (high-level) exchange of views and ideas; the Workshop Programme to enhance negotiating skills and capacity-building; and the Policy Analysis Programme to provide the policy analyses necessary for successful negotiations. Over the past 12 months, ecbi has hosted 11 workshops, seminars, ad hoc meetings worldwide with 276 participants from developing and developed countries. The feedback has been strong and progress demonstrated, particularly with regard of climate finance. We look forward to the year ahead and the establishment of two new ecbi Circles: one on the Durban Platform and a second communications platform for the LDC Group.

Author:
Publication Date:
April, 2012

This background paper presents an overview of the Durban outcomes, followed by an analysis from an African perspective.

This background paper presents an overview of the Durban outcomes, followed by an analysis from an African perspective.

An African Perspective

Author:
Seth Osafo, Anju Sharma and Achala Chandani Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
May, 2012

The 2011/12 ecbi Annual Report highlights our efforts over the past year to strengthen capacity and trust between North-South, and South-South positions in the emerging climate change regime. This is achieved through three programme areas: the trust-building Fellowship Programme with an informal (high-level) exchange of views and ideas; the Workshop Programme to enhance negotiating skills and capacity-building; and the Policy Analysis Programme to provide the policy analyses necessary for successful negotiations. Over the past 12 months, ecbi has hosted 11 workshops, seminars, ad hoc meetings worldwide with 276 participants from developing and developed countries. The feedback has been strong and progress demonstrated, particularly with regard of climate finance. We look forward to the year ahead and the establishment of two new ecbi Circles: one on the Durban Platform and a second communications platform for the LDC Group.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2012

Seminar on Durban Outcomes for the Africa Group

Seminar on Durban Outcomes for the Africa Group

March 2012

Author:
Publication Date:
March, 2012

ecbi Finance Circle May 2012 Flyer

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2012

This discussion focused on CBDR/RC and equity on the ADP, the future of the Kyoto Protocol (architecture) and long-term finance.

On May 20, the ecbi held its seventh Seminar organized in Bonn, to provide an informal forum for discussing issues that prove difficult to resolve under the formal auspices of the UNFCCC. ecbi Advisory Committee members Bo KjellÈn and Farrukh Iqbal Khan chaired the Seminar jointly. The discussion focused on CBDR/RC and equity on the ADP, the future of the Kyoto Protocol (architecture) and long-term finance.

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2012

Art. 3.1 Equity and CBDR/RC

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2012

The Future of the Kyoto Protocol (Architecture)

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2012

Durban Platform for Enhanced Action Options for Engagement

Author:
Seth Osafo
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Equity and CBDR/RC on the Durban Platform

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Gender and Climate Change

Author:
Anju Sharma and Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Innovative International Sources

The International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL)

Author:
Evans Davie Njewa
Publication Date:
July, 2012

First Workshop on Long-term Finance

Summary Report

Author:
Seyni NAFO
Publication Date:
July, 2012

The Oxford Measure − of Capability to Pay

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Operationalising the Standing Committee

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Operationalising the Standing Committee

Author:
Raj Bavishi and Myles Allen
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Equity and CBDR/RC on the Durban Platform

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Innovative International Sources

The International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL)

Author:
Evans Davie Njewa
Publication Date:
July, 2012

The Oxford Measure − of Capability to Pay

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Operationalising the Standing Committee

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2012

Speaking Notes

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2012

Prepared by the ecbi Fellows at the 2010 Oxford Fellowship.

Prepared by the ecbi Fellows at the 2010 Oxford Fellowship.

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2012

The Importance of Involving Stakeholders in the Green Climate Fund

Author:
Benito Müller, Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
August, 2012
Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2012

So which contributor countries met their obligations from Copenhagen 2009, and which are lagging?

At the 2009 Copenhagen climate change negotiations the worldís wealthier nations pledged major funding to help developing countries shift to a lower-carbon economy, and to deal with current and future climate change impacts. They pledged US$30 billion of ënew and additionalí fast-start climate finance, with funding ëbalancedí between mitigation and adaptation. We are now at the end of the fast-start period (2010-2012). So which contributor countries met their obligations and which are lagging?

Author:
David Ciplet, Spencer Fields, Keith Madden, Mizan Khan and Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
November, 2012

This brief proposes 'The Oxford Approach' framework for measuring national 'differentiated economic capabilities' ("ability to pay") as integral part of an operationalisation.

This brief proposes 'The Oxford Approach' framework for measuring national 'differentiated economic capabilities' ("ability to pay") as integral part of an operationalisation. Based on a well-known income tax paradigm to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes).

Author:
Benito Müller, Lavan Mahadeva
Publication Date:
February, 2013

Summary report for the ecbi Finance Circle meeting held in March 2013.

Summary report for the ecbi Finance Circle meeting held in March 2013. The discussion focused on the perceived controversial arrangements between the Conference of the Parties and the Green Climate Fund.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
March, 2013

This paper draws on lessons from the concluded Bali Road Map negotiations to reflect on possible approaches to commitments in the 2015 agreement and its legal form.

This paper draws on lessons from the concluded Bali Road Map negotiations to reflect on possible approaches to commitments in the 2015 agreement and its legal form, the shift from a ëtop-downí to a ëpledge and reviewí approach to commitments, and the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the nature of commitments and the effectiveness of the regime.

Lessons from the Bali Road Map

Author:
Xolisa Ngwadla, Achala C.Abeysinghe and Adéyêmi Freitas
Publication Date:
March, 2013

A meeting of the Finance Circle took place on December 4, 2012, during the second week of COP 18 at Doha.

A meeting of the Finance Circle took place on December 4, 2012, during the second week of COP 18 at Doha. The meeting was shortened to accommodate participantsí schedule commitments in the negotiations. Discussions focused on how the FC could continue to serve as a useful platform for the negotiators, particularly at this stage when the negotiations on finance have increased in complexity, crucial importance and presence throughout several bodies of the UNFCCC.

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
December, 2012

A review of 2012 Fast-start Finance to assess whether wealthy nations transparently contributed a fair-share of the US$ 30 billion pledge.

A review of 2012 Fast-start Finance to assess whether wealthy nations transparently contributed a fair-share of the US$ 30 billion pledge, while balancing adaptation and mitigation funding, sourcing funds through UNFCCC channels, and without reverting to debt- inducing loans in the place of grants.

Have Climate Finance Promises Been Fulfilled for the LDCs?

Author:
David Ciplet, Timmons Roberts, Mizan Khan, Spencer Fields and Keith Madden
Publication Date:
April, 2013

ecbi Annual Report 2012/13

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2013

Loss and Damage: From challenge to opportunity

Author:
Saleemul Huq, Erin Roberts and Anna Hasemann
Publication Date:
June, 2013

Opening Speech to the 2013 ecbi Bonn Seminar

Author:
Jürgen Nimptsch
Publication Date:
June, 2013

ADP WS2: Pre-2020 Ambition

Overview of key issues, linkages to Adaptation and Finance

Author:
Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Equity and Legal form

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

How do we? Finance in the 2015 Agreement

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Framework for Various Approaches

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Adaptation in 2015 Agreement

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

ADP WS2: Pre-2020 Ambition

Overview of key issues, linkages to Adaptation and Finance

Author:
Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Adaptation in the 2015 Agreement

Author:
Achala C. Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Key Issues of the Framework for Various Approaches

Potential links with NAMAs, NAPAs and REDD+

Author:
Daniel V. Ortega Pacheco
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Perspectives From ADP 2.2

Author:
Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
August, 2013

How do we assure means of implementation?

Finance in the 2015 Agreement

Author:
Naderev Yeb M. Saño
Publication Date:
August, 2013

An Approach to equity in climate change

Author:
Prodipto Ghosh
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Framework for Various Approaches

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Framework for Various Approaches: Possible elements and pitfalls

Author:
Ian Fry
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Form & Characteristics of the 2015 Agreement

Author:
LRI
Publication Date:
August, 2013

How Could Differentiation be Further Applied to an Already Binary Differentiated Treaty?

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Finance

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Gender and Climate Change

Author:
Julian Walker and Bridget Burns
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Technology in the 2015 Agreement

Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2013

Technology transfer in the 2015 Agreement

Author:
Spencer Thomas
Publication Date:
August, 2013

ADP WS2: Pre-2020 Ambition

Overview of key issues, linkages to Adaptation and Finance

Author:
Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
August, 2013

ADP WS2: Pre-2020 Ambition

Overview of key issues, linkages to Adaptation and Finance

Author:
Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
August, 2013

A new source of finance for climate action at the local level?

The policy brief considers ways in which crowdfunding for climate change (CF4CC) could be used to get funds to the 1.5 billion urban and rural poor currently without access to modern energy, to enable them to invest in renewable energy systems such as solar home systems, energy efficient products, or mini-grids serving communities and small towns.

A proposal based on this Policy Brief won the Popular Choice Award in the 2012-2013 MIT Climate Co-Lab “Scaling renewables in major emerging economies” contest.

Author:
Konrad von Ritter and Diann Black-Layne
Publication Date:
May, 2013

An introduction to the UNFCCC negotiations and LDC Group presented at the 2013 training workshop for Asian LDC negotiators.

An Introduction

Author:
Brianna Craft and Achala C. Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
September, 2013

On the eve of the 5th meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board in Paris, the ecbi organised an informal discussion meeting for Board members and advisers interested in the topics of resource allocation and Enhanced Direct Access through National Funding Entities. This is a brief summary of the meeting.

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
October, 2013

This is a meeting report of the ecbi Oxford Seminar which took place on 8-9 August 2013. A three-day Fellowship Colloquium from 5-7 August in Merton College, Oxford, preceded the Seminar.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
October, 2013

Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change

Doha Decision and way forward

Author:
M. Hafijul Islam Khan
Publication Date:
September, 2013

Legally Binding Instruments under Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC)

Kyoto Protocol and2015 New Global Agreement

Author:
MD Ziaul Haque
Publication Date:
September, 2013

Climate Negotiations – Legal Workshop

Author:
Legal Response Initiative
Publication Date:
September, 2013

This is a meeting report for the Finance Circle meeting held in Warsaw, Poland on November 13 2013. Twenty-six participants were in attendance from Algeria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, the DRC, the EU, France, the Gambia, Germany, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Uganda, the UK, and the US − including two co-chairs of the LTF and the SCF. The meeting was moderated by Benito Müller, and covered two topics suggested by the co-chairs: a) How to continue the work on LTF, possibly in the context of the SCF and/or other committees; and b) GCF Mobilization of resources - securing political commitments to ensure GCF replenishment.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2013
Author:
Erin Roberts, Raj Bavishi, Katherine Lofts, Mohammad Hafijul Islam Khan, Anna Hasemann, Adao Soares Barbosa and Saleemul Huq
Publication Date:
October, 2013
Author:
Gabrielle Kissinger, Thinley Namgyel
Publication Date:
October, 2013
Author:
Axel Michaelowa, Gebru Jember and El Hadji Mbaye Diagne
Publication Date:
September, 2013
Author:
Tim Gore, Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
November, 2013
Author:
Niklas Höhne, Hanna Fekete, Christian Ellermann and Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
November, 2013
Author:
Charlie Parker, Matthew Cranford and Ugan Manandhar
Publication Date:
November, 2013
Author:
Sina Wartmann, Chris Dodwell and Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
November, 2013

A brief summary of key legal issues relevant to Durban and beyond

Author:
Joy Hyvarinen, Maria Ortiz, Christoph Schwarte, David Wei
Publication Date:
May, 2012

Opportunity or risk for Least Developed Countries?

Author:
Muyeye Chambwera, Evans Davie Njewa, Denise Loga
Publication Date:
May, 2012

A brief history and description of the Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund and the Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund

Author:
S M Munjurul Hannan Khan, Saleemul Huq, Md Shamsuddoha
Publication Date:
May, 2012

An overview of the legal status of NAMA pledges, proposed financing mechanisms and other implications for a future climate agreement

Author:
Christoph Schwarte, David Wei, Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
May, 2012

A review of the possible sources of international climate change finance considered by the UNFCCC, the High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing (AGF), and the G20

Author:
Erik Haites, Carol Mwape
Publication Date:
May, 2012

This paper shows that ambitious global greenhouse gas mitigation action in a transparent and effective international climate regime is of great importance to LDCs. Through such ambitious global mitigation, impacts and damage to LDCs can be limited, and financial and technological flows can be generated from developed to developing countries. 

Author:
Michiel Schaeffer, Felix Fallasch, Sandra Freitas, Andries Hof, Kirsten Macey, Joeri Rogelj, Bill Hare
Publication Date:
November, 2011

Dissecting the Green Climate Fund

speaking notes

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July, 2011

ecbi Finance Circle meeting with Transitional Committee members

speaking notes

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2011

The Tenth Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action

Author:
Momodou Njie
Publication Date:
June, 2010

The importance of involving stakeholders in the GCF

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2012

Bonn Seminar 2013 Report

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
June, 2013

Finance Circle Meeting, June 2010

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2011

Finance Circle Meeting, June 2010

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2010

Oxford Fellowships & Seminar 2007 Report

During the 2007 Seminar, discussions took place on the post-2012 UN regime on climate change; the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), reduction of emissions from deforestation in developing countries; the operating modalities of the Adaptation Fund (in particular, the institutional aspects); and capacity building 

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2007

COP13/MOP3 Side Event

Author:
Publication Date:
December, 2007

COP12/MOP2 Side Event

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2007

ecbi Phase I Evaluation

Author:
Rod Janssen
Publication Date:
March, 2007

Sida funded an independent review of ecbi for its 2011-2013 activities and found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes as outlined in the report. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives, attributed to the fact that it does not push a specific agenda, and allows open discussion amongst negotiators in a setting separate from the negotiations process.

The ecbi has become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field - set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing countryled approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience. ecbi input has enabled developing country negotiators to collaborate and develop joint positions. This has led to impacts on negotiation decisions.

One of the key underpinning goals of the ecbi is to build trust between negotiators, both amongst developing country participants, and between those from the developing country and Europe. Respondents communicated strongly that they believed the ecbi is enabling trust building between participating negotiators, and were able to give examples of how this is manifest.

The evaluation also found that participants did feel they were better informed as a result of the ecbi.

Useful examples were identified of how this resulted in a more level playing field, as developing country negotiators and women negotiators often have less access to information resources than other stakeholders in the climate change negotiations. The ecbi also considers gender in its programming and is fulfilling its gender objectives.

Sida funded an independent review of ecbi for its 2011-2013 activities and found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes as outlined in the report. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives, attributed to the fact that it does not push a specific agenda, and allows open discussion amongst negotiators in a setting separate from the negotiations process.

The ecbi has become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field - set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing countryled approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience. ecbi input has enabled developing country negotiators to collaborate and develop joint positions. This has led to impacts on negotiation decisions.

One of the key underpinning goals of the ecbi is to build trust between negotiators, both amongst developing country participants, and between those from the developing country and Europe. Respondents communicated strongly that they believed the ecbi is enabling trust building between participating negotiators, and were able to give examples of how this is manifest.

The evaluation also found that participants did feel they were better informed as a result of the ecbi.

Useful examples were identified of how this resulted in a more level playing field, as developing country negotiators and women negotiators often have less access to information resources than other stakeholders in the climate change negotiations. The ecbi also considers gender in its programming and is fulfilling its gender objectives.

Author:
Lucy Heaven Taylor
Publication Date:
January, 2014

Whether or not the regime emerging from the current negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be based on an explicit cost/burden sharing formula, the debate about (implied) costs/burdens will be central. Such a debate cannot be genuinely meaningful in the absence of an acceptable operationalisation of Article 3.1 in general, and of the concept of ‘respective capability’ in particular.

The Brief proposes a measure for national 'differentiated economic capabilities ('ability to pay') as integral part of an operationalisation. The primary purpose of the measure is to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes). To illustrate the potential use of this methodology the Brief considers two examples: assessing the fairness of a given cost distribution; and developing a (rule-based) 'graduation scheme' regarding obligations to pay.

This is a second revised edition of the original ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller & Lavan Mahadeva that served as summary for policy makers of a technical report by the same authors published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, available at the link below. The revision is mainly with regards to the final section on determining ‘Levels of Capability’.

Author:
Benito Müller and Lavan Mahadeva
Publication Date:
January, 2014

Invitation by the The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia to the Pre-GCF Board Meeting Luncheon Discussion on “Country Ownership and Enhancing Direct Access”, held on 17 February 2014 in Bali, Indonesia. The discussion was aimed to provide a space for the Board and observer organizations to examine the key issues that need to be addressed relating to realising country ownership by enhancing direct access in different ways based on country circumstances in the design of GCF. It featured presentations of ideas from the Board members/alternates and experts as well as lessons learned from national and international funding institutions.

Invitation by the The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia to the Pre-GCF Board Meeting Luncheon Discussion on “Country Ownership and Enhancing Direct Access”, held on 17 February 2014 in Bali, Indonesia. The discussion was aimed to provide a space for the Board and observer organizations to examine the key issues that need to be addressed relating to realising country ownership by enhancing direct access in different ways based on country circumstances in the design of GCF. It featured presentations of ideas from the Board members/alternates and experts as well as lessons learned from national and international funding institutions.

Author:
Publication Date:
February, 2014
Author:
ecbi Executive Committee
Publication Date:
May, 2011

This Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access (EDA) by Benito Müller provides the key conceptual tools needed to understand EDA and exemplifies the main access models graphically with a number of figures, meant to illustrate the key differences between these models.

This Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access (EDA) by Benito Müller provides the key conceptual tools needed to understand EDA and exemplifies the main access models graphically with a number of figures, meant to illustrate the key differences between these models.

Author:
OCP/ ecbi/ OIES
Publication Date:
March, 2014

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board is in the process of considering "additional modalities that further enhance direct access". A devolved and decentralized access modality has been proposed as an alternative to the more traditional model, where detailed project approval is carried out at the multilateral level. This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller and William Pizer explains the relation between "enhanced direct access" and "programmatic approaches," and addresses certain concerns raised about this decentralized/devolved access model, using seven case studies to illustrate current practices that could provide ideas and insights about how the GCF might design its own approach. The case studies are focused around four questions:
a. How does the funding model generally work, in terms of disbursing funds?
b. Who decides what? What decisions are taken by the governing funding body and what decisions are devolved and to whom?
c. How does this funding model ensure the governing body’s objectives are met, and how does it ensure that the various fiduciary standards and safeguards are satisfied?
d. How is the funding level for a particular programme determined?

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board is in the process of considering "additional modalities that further enhance direct access". A devolved and decentralized access modality has been proposed as an alternative to the more traditional model, where detailed project approval is carried out at the multilateral level. This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller and William Pizer explains the relation between "enhanced direct access" and "programmatic approaches," and addresses certain concerns raised about this decentralized/devolved access model, using seven case studies to illustrate current practices that could provide ideas and insights about how the GCF might design its own approach. The case studies are focused around four questions:
a. How does the funding model generally work, in terms of disbursing funds?
b. Who decides what? What decisions are taken by the governing funding body and what decisions are devolved and to whom?
c. How does this funding model ensure the governing body’s objectives are met, and how does it ensure that the various fiduciary standards and safeguards are satisfied?
d. How is the funding level for a particular programme determined?

Author:
Benito Müller & William Pizer, with contributions by Sophie de Coninck, Dan Morrow, Gonzalo Serrano de la Rosa, Anju Sharma & Ced Hesse
Publication Date:
March, 2014

An institutional framework to address residual loss and damage should be guided by UNFCCC principles; recognise the urgency of developing and implementing robust and practical approaches to address loss and damage; address the needs of vulnerable countries; transform the scale of mitigation and adaptation ambition; be facilitative instead of punitive; and be based on the best available science and national circumstances.

Author:
Erin Roberts, Raj Bavishi, Katherine Lofts, Mohammad Hafijul Islam Khan, Anna Hasemann, Adao Soares Barbosa & Saleemul Huq
Publication Date:
March, 2014

Discussions on the formulation and implementation of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) have begun, but more clarity is needed on how finance for NAPs at the international level can support adaptation planning and implementation. This should be a priority for the 2014 climate conference in Peru, and for the Global Environment Facility, the Green Climate Fund (GCF), and other financial contributors. LDCs can explore low-cost and ‘no regret’ adaptation strategies to provide robust policy responses in the face of information uncertainty, and refine assessments of economic impacts of climate risks, in order to target adaptation investments better. 

Author:
Gabrielle Kissinger and Thinley Namgyel
Publication Date:
March, 2014

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) should not be ditched in favour of new, untested mechanisms. New Market Mechanisms (NMMs) should use the governance structure of the CDM, but should go further in standardising baseline and monitoring methodologies. The Framework for Various Approaches (FVA) is unlikely to generate benefits that could not be harnessed by NMMs or the CDM. A sufficient demand for credits requires strengthening of Annex B country commitments and “graduation” of advanced developing countries to take up emission targets under the 2015 agreement. The stronger the commitments, the less the market mechanisms would have to contribute to global reductions. Targeted climate finance for underlying funding of CDM projects and Programmes of Activities(PoAs)is needed.

Author:
Axel Michaelowa, Gebru Jember and El Hadji Mbaye Diagne
Publication Date:
March, 2014

The negotiations under workstream 1 of the Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) , on a regime which is “applicable to all”, offer an opportunity for LDCs to ensure that the ambition of all Parties is raised. “Applicable to all” does not, however, mean uniformity of action. Of particular importance to the LDCs is the differentiation of approaches to commitments, and the provision of ways to deal with the special circumstances of Small Island Developing States and the LDCs. 

Author:
Tim Gore and Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
March, 2014

Differentiation of commitments in the post-2020 period can take place either through the type of commitment, its ambition, and/or the process through which the commitment is determined. A good balance is needed between the initial level of ambition inscribed in the agreement, and a process to move to even more ambitious commitments later on. How country proposals will be reviewed for technical correctness, fairness and against the 1.5°C or 2°C limit is another critical point. Country positions on principles like equity, responsibility and capability vary broadly. 

Author:
Niklas Höhne, Hanna Fekete, Christian Ellermann and Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
March, 2014

The Warsaw Framework for REDD+, a comprehensive package of seven technical and finance decisions that provide the fundamental architecture for REDD+ to be implemented, was adopted at the 2013 climate conference. Deforestation in LDCs represents nearly a third of tropical deforestation. REDD+ should therefore be a key component of LDC mitigation actions. 

Author:
Charlie Parker, Matthew Cranford and Ugan Manandhar
Publication Date:
March, 2014

An explicit treatment of agriculture in the post -2020 climate agreement will put agriculture at the centre of global policy discussions, and address the objective of protecting food production enshrined in Article 2 of the UNFCCC. Adaptation is a more important priority among LDCs than mitigation in the agricultural sector. However, positive synergies exist between agricultural mitigation and the core needs of LDCs, including food security, adaptation and development. LDCs will need support to assess climate change impacts, identify response mechanisms, integrate the mechanisms into agricultural development plans, and implement the plans. 

Author:
Timm Tennigkeit, Andreas Wilkes, Charlie Parker and Fred Kossam
Publication Date:
March, 2014

Key issues for LDCs related to the MRV of mitigation actions include
the development of simplified methodologies for LDCs under the
Framework of Various Approaches to ensure that LDCs can benefit, and
simplified greenhouse gas inventories with the provision of adequate
resources to help LDCs to keep their emissions under control as they
develop.

Author:
Sina Wartmann, Chris Dodwell and Seyni Nafo
Publication Date:
March, 2014

Speaking at a dinner hosted by the Indonesian government during the recent Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Bali, Mr. Bambang Brodjonegoro, the Vice Minister of Finance, stated:
‘During this Board Meeting in Bali, Indonesia announces its pledge to contribute to the Fund. Indonesia also stands ready if all countries are required to contribute for the capital base of the Fund. I am hoping this contribution can support the Fund’s activities in helping developing countries to prepare and finance emissions reduction and adaptation programs, including capacity building programs under the South-South Cooperation that replicate the success stories of climate change programmes in other countries. I do hope other more capable countries can consider making pledges, or adding to their pledges, or making an indication of their pledges during this Bali meeting.’
The significance of this announcement should not be underestimated. It signals the readiness of a major developing country to provide voluntary support for South-South Cooperation on climate change through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

Speaking at a dinner hosted by the Indonesian government during the recent Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Bali, Mr. Bambang Brodjonegoro, the Vice Minister of Finance, stated:
‘During this Board Meeting in Bali, Indonesia announces its pledge to contribute to the Fund. Indonesia also stands ready if all countries are required to contribute for the capital base of the Fund. I am hoping this contribution can support the Fund’s activities in helping developing countries to prepare and finance emissions reduction and adaptation programs, including capacity building programs under the South-South Cooperation that replicate the success stories of climate change programmes in other countries. I do hope other more capable countries can consider making pledges, or adding to their pledges, or making an indication of their pledges during this Bali meeting.’

The significance of this announcement should not be underestimated. It signals the readiness of a major developing country to provide voluntary support for South-South Cooperation on climate change through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

A GCF Operated Southern Solidarity Fund

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

Discussion Note for the Sixth Meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board

A Discussion Note for the Sixth Meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board

Status quo and the way forward

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

BACKGROUND PAPER GCF/B.06/05

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

OCP/ecbi/OIES Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

Afterthoughts

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

Preliminary Thoughts

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2014

An OCP/ecbi Legal Note

Author:
Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys, and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2014

ecbi Annual Report 2013/14

FY 2013-2014 marked the penultimate year of the current Phase III of the ecbi, a time for taking stock in order to plan for the future. A Sida funded independent evaluation of the activities between 2011 and 2013 found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives and to have become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field − set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing country-led approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2014

In a recent Concept Note,1 Benito Müller put forward the idea of a Southern Solidarity Fund (SSF) to receive voluntary contributions from developing countries for South-South climate change cooperation. It is meant to be established by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC or Convention) with a developing country Board, and to be operated by the Green Climate Fund (GCF), as an operating entity of the FCCC financial mechanism. As such, it is meant to give developing countries ‘the opportunity to provide support to their peers for climate change activities’2 which ‘should be able to avail itself of the best available delivery systems, such as is hoped will be established under the Green Climate Fund, in particular through Enhanced Direct Access, where operational decision-making is devolved to recipient countries.’

Legal Options and Challenges

Author:
Charlotte Streck and David Rossati
Publication Date:
May, 2014

The Berlin Mandate, adopted during the early hours of 7 April 1995, marked the end of the first Conference of Parties (COP 1) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Berlin, Germany.1 The Mandate was one of the most important decisions of the COP, paving the way for the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol.2

As Chief Negotiator for Sweden, I participated actively in high-level informal consultations before the Berlin COP. During the COP, I chaired a high-level working group on the Berlin Mandate, which was established at the very beginning of the conference and worked all through, with meetings practically every day. My reflections in this paper seek to provide an insider’s view of the Berlin Mandate process, and draw lessons for the ongoing negotiations for a post-2020 climate regime.

Process and Substance

Author:
Bo Kjellen
Publication Date:
May, 2014
Author:
ecbi Executive Committee
Publication Date:
May, 2014

Presentation at Joint ecbi Committees and Funder Meeting

Author:
ecbi Executive Committee
Publication Date:
June, 2014

The 2014 ecbi Bonn Seminar took place at the Altes Rathaus in Bonn, Germany, on the afternoon of 9 June. The Seminar was attended by over 45 negotiators and representatives from developing countries and Europe, including the two Chairs of the Ad-Hoc Group on the Durban Platform (ADP), the key negotiating body for the future climate agreement.

The 2014 ecbi Bonn Seminar took place at the Altes Rathaus in Bonn, Germany, on the afternoon of 9 June. The Seminar was attended by over 45 negotiators and representatives from developing countries and Europe, including the two Chairs of the Ad-Hoc Group on the Durban Platform (ADP), the key negotiating body for the future climate agreement.

Discussions were held on: financial support for climate change; whether or not the post-2015 climate agreement should differentiate expected engagement of countries by using ex-ante country lists (Annexes); and how to ensure a just outcome, both with respect to equity (intragenerational justice) and ambition (intergenerational justice).

Bo Kjellén, Co-Chair of the ecbi Advisory Committee, opened the meeting and chaired the sessions. The proceedings began with the reading of a message from the Lord Mayor of Bonn, Jürgen Nimptsch, who praised the ecbi for “opening doors for trust and understanding in the global climate debate by advancing an exchange between … North and South”

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
June, 2014

4. Adaptation

Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
August, 2014

Operationalising the Global Goal for Adaptation

Author:
Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
August, 2014

To Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants

Author:
James Morris
Publication Date:
August, 2014

2. Mitigation

Author:
Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
August, 2014

How gender should be addressed in the ADP?

Author:
Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
August, 2014

1. General Architecture

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2014

3. Finance

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2014
Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2014
Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2014
Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August, 2014
Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2014

This is a meeting report of the ecbi Oxford Seminar which took place in August 2014. A three-day Fellowship Colloquium in Merton College, Oxford, preceded the Seminar.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2014
Author:
Publication Date:
August, 2014

In their Scenario Note on the sixth part of the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), the ADP Co-chairs emphasized that “it is essential to use the October session to make significant progress in clarifying and advancing the content of the 2015 agreement, to build bridges and to work together on outstanding issues. In particular, it will be important in the October session, to further clarify and flesh out the operational aspects of the agreement. Key challenges that will need focussed attention in our work include: deepening the understanding on the longer-term cycle of contributions/commitments, including its periodicity (length) and the functions of the steps proposed, such as any periodical consideration or assessment and review”.

This ecbi/OCP Concept Note by Benito Müller, Xolisa J. Ngwadla (South Africa), Jose D. G. Miguez (Brazil) with Isabel Cavelier Adarve (Colombia), Carlos Fuller (Belize), Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu (DRC), and Nagmeldin G. Elhassan (Sudan) introduces the idea of a Dynamic Contribution Cycle as a contribution to the debate on these issues.

Sequencing Contributions in the 2015 Paris Agreement

Author:
Benito Müller, Xolisa J. Ngwadla, Jose D. G. Miguez with Isabel Cavelier Adarve, Carlos Fuller, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu & Nagmeldin G. Elhassan
Publication Date:
October, 2014

What is the future of adaptation financing under a new global climate agreement and beyond the UNFCCC?

What is the future of adaptation financing under a new global climate agreement and beyond the UNFCCC? What role will an actor such as the Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund, which strengthened country ownership by pioneering direct access, play as a result of ongoing efforts to rationalize the global climate finance architecture with the full operationalization of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) as a new major player?
These are some of the questions that were put to the participants of a discussion meeting convened by the Heinrich Bo?ll Foundation North America and the European Capacity Building Initiative (ecbi) on 7 December 2014 (during UN Climate Conference in Lima/Peru). The conversation was kicked off with this short presentation by Benito Mu?ller on the future of the Adaptation Fund.
With Parties aiming to set the parameters for a post-2020 global climate agreement during the COP 20 in Lima, half-way through the negotiations, this was an opportune time to discuss how the role and function of existing adaptation funding instruments might be shifting in the future with a special focus of the conversation on the Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
December, 2014

Agenda

Author:
ecbi Executive Committee
Publication Date:
November, 2006

On 5 March, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) Secretariat published a Board Paper and Draft Decision on ‘Additional Modalities that Further Enhance Direct Access: Terms of Reference for a Pilot Phase,’ putting forward recommendations to the GCF Board on how to operationalise the ‘Enhanced Direct Access Pilot Phase’, which was agreed during the last Board meeting that took place in Barbados in October 2014. The Draft Decision is ‘to launch a Request for Proposal to countries through their national designated authority or focal point and public media to competitively select subnational, national, public and private entities for the implementation of 5 pilots with a total of US$ 100 million, including at least 2 pilots to be implemented in small island developing States, the least developed countries and African States’.

Enhanced Direct Access and the GCF Private Sector Facility

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February, 2015

National and international finance is increasingly becoming available in developing countries to address climate change for both mitigation and adaptation. However, existing (domestic) arrangements for climate finance are often dispersed and fragmentary, and lack clear goals and strategies, therefore allowing for neither efficiency nor accountability. This ecbi Policy Brief by Anju Sharma, Benito Müller, and Pratim Roy examines the governance arrangements for climate finance in India, and proposes the creation of an Indian National Climate Fund to pool climate finance from different national and international sources, to channel it to the State and local levels. The Fund should seek to 'consolidate without centralisation', and to devolve decision-making on the use of climate finance to local governments. In addition to defining a common vision and principles for climate finance, such a National Funding Entity should aim for coherence with national development goals strategies, and integration across sectors; distributive justice, to ensure that climate finance reaches those who need it most, and that their needs are prioritised; and a balance between different thematic areas (such as mitigation, adaptation, capacity building etc.). It should also review progress continuously, and make mid-course corrections where necessary.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Benito Müller and Pratim Roy
Publication Date:
March, 2015
Author:
Benito Müller and Liane Schalatek
Publication Date:
March, 2015

A great deal of confusion has resulted from the fact that it has hitherto not been possible for the GCF Board to agree on definitions for some of the key nouns referred to in the GCF Governing Instrument in the context of who can access GCF funding. This Concept Note by Benito Müller proposes the following definitions in terms of the GCF accreditation categories:
• Implementing Entity (IE): an entity accredited by the GCF to access GCF funding.
• Project Implementing Entity: an IE accredited for project management.
• Funding Entity: an IE accredited to award grants and/or allocate funding.
• Intermediary: an IE accredited for on-lending and/or blending.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2015

This OCP/ecbi submission to the Standing Committee on Finance summarizes the most recent developments regarding the relations between the Adaptation Fund and the Green Climate Fund and proposes that with regard to this particular relationship, the SCF should focus on how to make best use of existing complementarities between the two funds.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2015
Author:
Hans Olav Ibrekk
Publication Date:
April, 2015

Having been established more than a decade ago to address the urgent and immediate needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially vulnerable to the impact of climate change, the Least Developed Countries Fund for Climate Change (LDCF) still struggles to obtain adequate and predictable funding. The Global Environment Facility, the operating entity of the LDCF, has been unable to program LDCF resources at the level of around US$200 million per year, as proposed in the Programming Strategy for the LDCF.

More generally, this Think Piece by Benito Müller argues, a success at the UN Climate change summit Paris in December will require a significant finance package which is not ad hoc, but rather provides genuine longer-term predictability. In addition to using the proceeds of new international market mechanisms, we think there is also a need to look at innovative sources at the national and sub-national level.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2015

The Report describes the accomplishments of the ecbi in the FY2014/15. For one, the 2014 Oxford Fellowships and Seminar resulted in an OCP/ecbi Concept Note on a ‘Dynamic Contribution Cycle’ which has since become a prominent and promising option in the ADP negotiating text.

On 13 October 2014, the eve of Eighth meeting of the Barbados Green Climate Fund Board we organized a GCFB Caucus seminar to discuss the findings of an ecbi Policy Brief on Devolved Access Modalities: Lessons for the Green Climate Fund from Existing Practice. It was widely acknowledged that this was very helpful and conducive to the Board’s decision to request the Secretariat to prepare Terms of Reference for operationalising an Enhanced Direct Access pilot phase. Subsequently, we were able to have certain suggestions based on two ecbi Policy Papers (Consolidation and devolution of national climate finance: The case of India and Engaging Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in developing countries) reflected in the GCF Secretariat document on Additional Modalities that Further Enhance Direct Access: Terms of Reference for a Pilot Phase (published on 5 March 2015).

Last, but by no means least, we co-hosted a discussion meeting convened with the Heinrich Boell Foundation North America on 7 December 2014 (during UN Climate Conference in Lima/Peru) to discuss how the role and function of existing adaptation funding instruments might be shifting in the future with a special focus of the conversation on the Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund. The event was very well received and has since led to a close collaboration with the Adaptation Fund Board Chair and Secretariat on these matters.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2015

The 2015 ecbi Bonn Seminar, which marked its tenth anniversary this year, took place on 7 June in the Altes
Rathaus, Bonn. It was attended by over 25 negotiators and participants from developing countries and Europe.
Participants discussed the minimum requirements for the 2015 Paris Climate Conference to be considered
a success; county contributions with regard to sequencing, reviews and assessments; and the Paris finance
package.

The Seminar was opened by ecbi Director Benito Müller, who welcomed participants, and introduced the
agenda.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
June, 2015

The role of earmarked (sub-) national contributions

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015

Session 1 (mitigation)

Author:
Andrés Pirazzoli
Publication Date:
September, 2015

Session II (transparency of action)

Author:
Andrés Pirazzoli
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Erin Roberts, Saleemul Huq
Publication Date:
September, 2015

Facilitating Implementation and Compliance

Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
September, 2015

Ambition and Permanence for the Cancun Adaptation Framework

Author:
Juan Hoffmaister
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2015

Analysis of gender considerations in the ADP co-chairs’ tool?

Author:
Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
September, 2015
Author:
Benito Müller & Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
October, 2015

The 2016 ecbi Seminar took place at the Oxford Union on 1-2 September 2016, following the Fellows Colloquium from 29-21 August 2016. It was attended by 19 participants from developing countries, and 16 participants from Europe. Representatives of the current and future presidency of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including Aziz Mekouar, Ambassador for the Multilateral Negotiations for the 22nd Conference of Parties (COP 22) in Marrakech in November 2016, participated in the Seminar.

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2016

Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2015

Summary Brief

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Benito Müller and Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Brianna Craft
Publication Date:
November, 2015

Issues in current Negotiating Text

Author:
Raj Bavishi
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Giza Gaspar Martins
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
November, 2015

Issues in current Negotiating Text

Author:
Raj Bavishi
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
November, 2015
Author:
Pa Ousman Jarju
Publication Date:
December, 2015
Author:
Laurel Murray, with Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
December, 2015
Author:
Benito Müller Harro van Asselt, Cristina Carreiras, and Kaveh Guilanpour
Publication Date:
March, 2016

How to enhance mitigation ambition under the Paris Agreement

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2016
Author:
Anju Sharma, Christoph Schwarte, Achala Abeysinghe and Subhi Barakat
Publication Date:
April, 2016
Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
November, 2015

The long-term view: OCP/ecbi/OIES Discussion Note

Author:
Bo Kjellen
Publication Date:
April, 2016

The Need for Strategic Caps and Balances

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2016

Joint Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board

Author:
Benito Müller, with Diann Black-Lane, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Cheikh Sylla, and Anders Wallberg
Publication Date:
April, 2016

The 2016 ecbi Bonn Seminar took place on 22 May 2016 in the Altes Rathaus, Bonn. It was attended by 34 participants, who discussed climate finance post-Paris, the ambition mechanism included in the Paris Agreement, and the Agreement’s review mechanisms.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
June, 2016

The 2016 ecbi Training and Support Programme Workshop for Francophone Africa took place on 15 and 16 June 2016 in Dakar, Senegal. The workshop, organised in collaboration with ecbi’s regional partner Energie Environnement Développement (ENDA), was attended by over 30 negotiators from the region.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Achala-Abeysinghe-Legal-issues-Paris-Agreement-Dakar

Author:
Dr. Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Achala-Introduction-Paris-Agreement-Dakar

Author:
Dr. Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Acronyms-used-multilateral-negotiations

Author:
Brianna Craft, IIED
Publication Date:
July, 2016

ecbi-TDT-Craft_ENDA

Author:
Brianna Craft, IIED
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Introduction to mitigation issues

Author:
Sushi Barakat, LRI
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Introduction to international climate finance

Author:
Benito Müller, Oxford Climate Policy
Publication Date:
July, 2016

ecbi-Presentation-CB-PKT-plus

Author:
Penda KANTE-THIAM
Publication Date:
July, 2016

ECBI-training-Dakar-Preparating-negotiations

Survol de la preparation aux négociations internationales

Author:
Mamadou HONADIA
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Training-Dakar-Adaptation-Loss-Damage

Adaptation et Pertes et Préjudices

Author:
Mamadou HONADIA
Publication Date:
July, 2016

Transparency-global-stocktake

Author:
Sushi Barakat
Publication Date:
July, 2016

The Need for Strategic Caps and Balances

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April, 2016

Joint Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board

Author:
Benito Müller, with Diann Black-Lane, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Cheikh Sylla, and Anders Wallberg
Publication Date:
April, 2016

Mueller_Framework_to_Mechanism

How to enhance mitigation ambition under the Paris Agreement

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Kumarshingh_2016_Seminar

Author:
Kishan Kumarsingh
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Holz_ECBI_2016-Global_Stocktake

Author:
Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Holz_ECBI_2016-Global_Stocktake-Ver2

Version 2

Author:
Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Miguez-Paris_Agreement_Article_6+BM

Author:
Jose Miguez, Brazilian Ministry of Environment
Publication Date:
September, 2016

V.Le _Masson_Oxford_Fellowship_2016

Author:
Dr Virginie Le Masson
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Abeysinghe_Transparency_of_action_and_support

Author:
Achala Abeysinghe
Publication Date:
September, 2016

Ambassador_Mekouar_2016

Ambassador for the Multilateral Negotiations

Author:
H.E. Amb. Aziz Mekouar
Publication Date:
September, 2016

French version

Author:
Anju Sharma, Christoph Schwarte, Achala Abeysinghe and Subhi Barakat
Publication Date:
April, 2016

Review and Communication Cycles - Options Note

Author:
Benito Müller and Xolisa Ngwadla, with Cristina Carreiras, Geert Fremout, Carlos Fuller, Kishan Kumarsingh, Jose Miguez
Publication Date:
October, 2016

Shares of Proceeds and Crowdfunding

Author:
Benito Müller with Alexandra Kornilova, and Carsten Warnecke
Publication Date:
October, 2016

Q&A, OCP/ecbi Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
October, 2016

Opportunities and Challenges

Author:
Christian Holz and Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
October, 2016
Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans and Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
October, 2016

The Paris Agreement’s capacity building provisions can be regarded as foundational for all other institutions, mechanisms and processes. This paper draws on a historical perspective on capacity building efforts, including those under the UNFCCC, to provide specific proposals with regard to the Paris Committee on Capacity Building and the Capacity Building Initiative on Transparency, and a broader perspective on the key ingredients for sustainable capacity building.

Author:
Mizan Khan, Ambuj Sagar, Saleemul Huq and Penda Kante Thiam
Publication Date:
October, 2016
Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2016
Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2016

Last year was, by any account, an extraordinary year in the fight against climate change – not only at the international level with the Paris Agreement, but also for the ecbi.

First and foremost, support from the German International Climate Initiative (IKI) has revived our Training and Support Programme (T&SP). Managed by Achala Abeysinghe and her team at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), T&SP held its first pre-COP training workshop for junior LDC negotiators in Paris. We are very much looking forward to the future pre-COP and regional training workshops and support activities by the T&SP in Phase IV (2015-2020) of the ecbi.
We were also extremely proud about the fact that in the run-up to Paris, Achala was listed as one of the top 15 female climate champions by CNN, together with Christiana Figueres and Laurence Tubiana, and subsequently featured in a special edition on Vogue as a “climate warrior”.

Our Publications and Policy Analysis Unit, headed by Anju Sharma, has also delivered a number of important policy papers and analyses. Anju, who is also our lead analyst on in-country Enhanced Direct Access (EDA), presented a set of last year’s publications, Consolidation and devolution of national climate finance: The case of India and Engaging Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in developing countries: Enhanced Direct Access and the GCF Private Sector Facility, at a Fellowship Programme Ad hoc Seminar consultation with senior Indian policy-makers in New Delhi, to encourage a national understanding of EDA.

In addition to this, and apart from the annual Bonn Seminar and Oxford Fellowship and Seminar, the Fellowship Programme also organised a couple of Ad hoc Seminars co-hosted by the Chair of the Adaptation Fund Board and the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Finance to facilitate a discussion between the members of these two bodies on the role of the Adaptation Fund in the new climate regime.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
June, 2016

The Adaptation Fund After Marrakech. OCP/ecbi Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January, 2017

A call for Europe to demonstrate renewed leadership in the international climate change regime

Author:
Bo Kjellen and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
March, 2017

ecbi Regional Training Workshop for South and South East Asia, Dhaka, April 2016

ecbi Regional Training Workshop for South and South East Asia, Dhaka, summer 2016

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2016
Author:
Michael Kracht
Publication Date:
March, 2017

With the Training and Support Programme fully back on track with four training workshops, four bursaries, and support to negotiators; six seminars organised by the Fellowship Programme; and numerous policy briefs and background papers produced by the Publications and Policy Analysis Unit, 2016-2017 has been a very busy year for ecbi.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Where have we been, and where should we go? This thematic guide on capacity building summarises the history of negotiations on capacity building under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, while providing a wider perspective on capacity building as an element of global cooperation. It is a ready reference to the key decisions that have already been adopted, and a brief analysis of how capacity building efforts can be made more effective in future, including under the Paris Committee on Capacity Building.

Where have we been, and where should we go? This thematic guide on capacity building summarises the history of negotiations on capacity building under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, while providing a wider perspective on capacity building as an element of global cooperation. It is a ready reference to the key decisions that have already been adopted, and a brief analysis of how capacity building efforts can be made more effective in future, including under the Paris Committee on Capacity Building.

Author:
Mizan Khan, Ambuj Sagar, Saleemul Huq and Penda Kante Thiam
Publication Date:
May, 2017

The 2017 ecbi Bonn Seminar took place on 14 May 2017, at La Redoute. It was attended by 55 negotiators from developed and developing countries, including heads of key national and regional delegations; the Chairs of the Least Developed Country (LDC) group, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI); Board members of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Adaptation Fund; and Council Members of the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
Participants discussed the financial mechansim of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Role of the Adaptation Fund and Resource Mobilization

Author:
Benito Muller
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Kick-Starting Enhanced Ambition

Author:
Kaveh Guilanpour
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Depuis plus de dix ans, l’Initiative Européenne pour le Renforcement des Capacités (ecbi) veille à rendre équitables – pour les pays en développement – les négociations de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC). L’ecbi applique pour cela une stratégie sur deux axes : d’une part, former de nouveaux négociateurs ; d’autre part, faciliter les interactions entre les négociateurs principaux des pays en développement et les négociateurs européens, et ce afin que les parties comprennent mieux leurs positions respectives et puissent travailler dans un climat de confiance.

Depuis plus de dix ans, l’Initiative Européenne pour le Renforcement des Capacités (ecbi) veille à rendre équitables – pour les pays en développement – les négociations de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC). L’ecbi applique pour cela une stratégie sur deux axes : d’une part, former de nouveaux négociateurs ; d’autre part, faciliter les interactions entre les négociateurs principaux des pays en développement et les négociateurs européens, et ce afin que les parties comprennent mieux leurs positions respectives et puissent travailler dans un climat de confiance.

sous la CCNUCC

Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans, et J. Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Where have we been, and where should we go? This thematic guide on capacity building summarises the history of negotiations on capacity building under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, while providing a wider perspective on capacity building as an element of global cooperation. It is a ready reference to the key decisions that have already been adopted, and a brief analysis of how capacity building efforts can be made more effective in future, including under the Paris Committee on Capacity Building.

Author:
Mizan Khan, Ambuj Sagar, Saleemul Huq and Penda Kante Thiam
Publication Date:
May, 2017

Flipbook, Francaise

Author:
Anju Sharma, Christoph Schwarte, Achala Abeysinghe and Subhi Barakat
Publication Date:
April, 2016

Generating new (innovative) sources of funding from US states, regions, and cities, for the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC/Paris Agreement.

Author:
Publication Date:
June, 2017

On the first day of the 2015 Oxford Seminar, in Trinity College, participants addressed legal issues and process; adaptation, and loss and damage; and mitigation and transparency of action. On the second day, in the Examination Schools, they discussed climate finance; time frames and cycles; and the process/ way forward to the 21st Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris, from 30 November to 11 December 2015.

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
October, 2015

During the 2013 Fellowship Colloquium, 17 senior negotiators from developing countries discussed key areas of concern in under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They were joined by 13 senior negotiators from Europe during the Oxford Seminar, and discussed contentious issues such as the legal form of a future outcome, equity, mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer, finance, and the governance and accountability of operating entities (including the Green Climate Fund, or GCF).

Author:
Anju Sharma
Publication Date:
September, 2013

At the 2011 Seminar, participants discussed the possibility of a mutually agreeable ‘sequence’ of action, in order to overcome lack of trust on both sides. An ‘Annex C’ to the Kyoto Protocol was proposed as a way of rescuing the multilateral system from disintegrating into a ‘pledge and review’ system. Discussions were also held on the legal form of a climate agreement; the sources and institutional architecture for climate finance; and monitoring of climate commitments by both developed and developing countries. 

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2011

As a direct outcome of the Fellowship and Seminar this year, a proposal put together by the Fellows for the governance of climate change finance formed the basis of a presentation by one of the Fellows at the High Level Geneva Dialogue on Climate Finance. 

Author:
Publication Date:
October, 2010

The 2006 ECBI Oxford Fellowships brought together 11 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows from Bhutan, Brazil, China, India, Maldives, Mexico, Niger, South Africa, The Gambia, and Zambia, and negotiators from France, Germany, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, the Finnish EU Presidency and the European Commission between 24 August and 1 September to engage in a number of trust-building activities. 

Author:
Publication Date:
November, 2017

ECBI 2005 Oxford Fellowships

ECBI 2005 Oxford Fellowships

Author:
Publication Date:
September, 2005