The 2015 Paris Agreement was negotiated piece by piece, rather than as a whole document. As a result, although several pieces of the Agreement are closely related and even overlap, not all the linkages between them are logical or, at least as yet, coherent. Identifying and addressing the links between these different complex elements is essential for the overall coherence and effectiveness of the Paris outcome. This paper identifies links and gaps between the major elements of the Agreement.
European Capacity Building Initiative
ecbi's Publications and Policy Analysis Unit (PPAU) generates information and advice for developing country negotiators that is relevant to the climate negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Developing countries often lack the economic and institutional capacity for policy analysis. If negotiators are unable to engage proactively by submitting proposals, responding to proposals from other States, and assessing the impact of global climate policy decisions on their individual States, progress in the negotiations can be hampered by the lack of alternatives and uncertainity. The differences in analytic capacity between developing countries and the industrialised world are often profound – developing countries lack support from organisations like the OECD, for instance, which has an immense apparatus producing thorough and focused reports, including direct advice on future policy responses to each of member country.
ecbi publications aim to be relevant to ongoing negotiations under the UNFCCC, timely, and trustworthy. PPAU works with negotiators from developing countries, sometimes through Editorial Committees, to identify UNFCCC issues where further analysis and policy advice is needed. Global experts are then teamed up with negotiators from devleoping countries to produce Policy Briefs and Discussion Notes. This partnership between experts and negotiators helps to ensure that the process of producing a Brief addresses the specific concerns of developing country negotiators; builds the capacity of developing country co-authors in policy analysis; and also builds ownership of the analysis.
For new negotiators, and for use in ecbi Regional and Pre-COP Training Workshops, PPAU produces Background Papers and a series of Pocket Guides. These generally provide a more basic analysis of issues for newcomers to the process, along with the background and history of the issue in the negotiations.
This discussion note finds that the rolling ‘updated 5 + indicative 5’ cycle with synchronised updating of the Dynamic Contribution Cycle which, as reflected in the submissions, has been receiving traction, is by far the best procedural bet for enhancing collective NDC ambition.
The 2018 Oxford Seminar and Fellows Colloquium, from 13-17 August, focused on key concerns relating to the ongoing global negotiations on the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement, including: Paris rulebook expectations for Katowice; gender and climate change; linkages between Articles of the Paris Agreement; predictability of climate finance under the Paris Agreement (Article 9.5); the enhanced transparency framework; the collective quantified goal for climate finance; Talanoa Dialogue; non-market cooperative approaches (Article 6.8); Common Time Frames (Article 4.10); and climate change and human rights.
The ecbi 2018 South and Southeast Asia Regional Training Workshop was held on 6 and 7 June in Colombo, Sri Lanka. It was attended by 28 government representatives from 13 countries in the region. Participants were trained on issues such as becoming a better UNFCCC delegate; the year ahead in the negotiations; and how to participate in negotiations through mock negotiatiating sessions and sessions on formulating group positions. They were also informed of the state of negotiations in thematic areas of the Paris Agreement, such as adaptation, means of implementation, transparency, the global stocktake, and the compliance mechanism.
Know your NDCs. This Pocket Guide takes you through the controversial beginnings of NDCs, to their current diversity; considers the challenges that countries are likely face in their implementation; and reflects on how best they can serve their ultimate purpose – that of achieving the long-term temperature goals of the Paris Agreement.
The 2018 Bonn Seminar, on 6 May at the Oxford Club in Bonn, was attended by 45 participants from Europe and developing countries. They discussed issues of relevance to the development of the Paris Agreement Work Programme, including Article 6 market approaches under the Paris Agreement; common time frames; ambition and the Talanoa Dialogue; and predictability of climate finance.
The 2018 Regional Training Workshop for Anglophone Africa took place from 9-11 September 2017 in Saly, Senegal. The workshop, hosted by ENDA Énergie, was attended by negotiators and national policymakers from countries in East Africa, appointed by national focal points to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In addition to training on key thematic areas of the UNFCCC negotiations and on the ongoing negotiations on the ongoing negotiations on the rules to implement the Paris Agreement, participants engaged in mock “negotiations” and formulating of group positions during workshop.
At the 2018 Regional Training Workshop for Francophone Africa in Saly, Senegal, from 11-13 April, aspiring climate negotiators and national policy makers from West Africa recieved training from climate veterans from the region – including LDC Chair Gebru Jember, Madeleine Diouf Sarr, and Mamadou Hondia. Designed to include training workshops, support during negotiations, and bursaries for some negotiators, ecbi's Training and Support Programme also provides an opportunity for newcomers to the UNFCCC process to be mentored by senior negotiators
The three ecbi programmes had a particularly busy period this past year, producing nine seminars, four training programmes, eight policy briefs and notes; three pocket guides; and numerous meeting reports. Bursaries were provided to two junior negotiators, and technical support to senior negotiators from vulnerable countries.
Faisons-nous assez pour lutter contre le changement climatique? Les pays respectent-ils leurs engagements? La transparence constitue un élément clé pour pouvoir répondre à ces questions. Ce Guide de poche d’ecbi, mis à jour en janvier 2018, retrace l’évolution des arrangements relatifs à la transparence de la CCNUCC à l’Accord de Paris. Il concerne à la fois la transparence des mesures et de l’appui, et suggère des pistes d’amélioration pour ces deux éléments du régime climatique international.