European Capacity Building Initiative

ecbi Publications

ecbi's Publications and Policy Analysis Unit (PPAU) generates information and advice for developing country negotiators that is relevant to the climate negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  

Developing countries often lack the economic and institutional capacity for policy analysis. If negotiators are unable to engage proactively by submitting proposals, responding to proposals from other States, and assessing the impact of global climate policy decisions on their individual States, progress in the negotiations can be hampered by the lack of alternatives and uncertainity. The differences in analytic capacity between developing countries and the industrialised world are often profound – developing countries lack support from organisations like the OECD, for instance, which has an immense apparatus producing thorough and focused reports, including direct advice on future policy responses to each of member country.

ecbi publications aim to be relevant to ongoing negotiations under the UNFCCC, timely, and trustworthy. PPAU works with negotiators from developing countries, sometimes through Editorial Committees, to identify UNFCCC issues where further analysis and policy advice is needed. Global experts are then teamed up with negotiators from devleoping countries to produce Policy Briefs and Discussion Notes. This partnership between experts and negotiators helps to ensure that the process of producing a Brief addresses the specific concerns of developing country negotiators; builds the capacity of developing country co-authors in policy analysis; and also builds ownership of the analysis. 

For new negotiators, and for use in ecbi Regional and Pre-COP Training Workshops, PPAU produces Background Papers and a series of Pocket Guides. These generally provide a more basic analysis of issues for newcomers to the process, along with the background and history of the issue in the negotiations. 

You can use the search function below or see all our publications in one page here

An OCP/ecbi Legal Note

Author:
Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys, and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May, 2014

ecbi Annual Report 2013/14

FY 2013-2014 marked the penultimate year of the current Phase III of the ecbi, a time for taking stock in order to plan for the future. A Sida funded independent evaluation of the activities between 2011 and 2013 found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives and to have become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field − set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing country-led approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience.

Author:
Publication Date:
May, 2014

In a recent Concept Note,1 Benito Müller put forward the idea of a Southern Solidarity Fund (SSF) to receive voluntary contributions from developing countries for South-South climate change cooperation. It is meant to be established by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC or Convention) with a developing country Board, and to be operated by the Green Climate Fund (GCF), as an operating entity of the FCCC financial mechanism. As such, it is meant to give developing countries ‘the opportunity to provide support to their peers for climate change activities’2 which ‘should be able to avail itself of the best available delivery systems, such as is hoped will be established under the Green Climate Fund, in particular through Enhanced Direct Access, where operational decision-making is devolved to recipient countries.’

Legal Options and Challenges

Author:
Charlotte Streck and David Rossati
Publication Date:
May, 2014

An explicit treatment of agriculture in the post -2020 climate agreement will put agriculture at the centre of global policy discussions, and address the objective of protecting food production enshrined in Article 2 of the UNFCCC. Adaptation is a more important priority among LDCs than mitigation in the agricultural sector. However, positive synergies exist between agricultural mitigation and the core needs of LDCs, including food security, adaptation and development. LDCs will need support to assess climate change impacts, identify response mechanisms, integrate the mechanisms into agricultural development plans, and implement the plans. 

Author:
Timm Tennigkeit, Andreas Wilkes, Charlie Parker and Fred Kossam
Publication Date:
March, 2014

The Warsaw Framework for REDD+, a comprehensive package of seven technical and finance decisions that provide the fundamental architecture for REDD+ to be implemented, was adopted at the 2013 climate conference. Deforestation in LDCs represents nearly a third of tropical deforestation. REDD+ should therefore be a key component of LDC mitigation actions. 

Author:
Charlie Parker, Matthew Cranford and Ugan Manandhar
Publication Date:
March, 2014

Differentiation of commitments in the post-2020 period can take place either through the type of commitment, its ambition, and/or the process through which the commitment is determined. A good balance is needed between the initial level of ambition inscribed in the agreement, and a process to move to even more ambitious commitments later on. How country proposals will be reviewed for technical correctness, fairness and against the 1.5°C or 2°C limit is another critical point. Country positions on principles like equity, responsibility and capability vary broadly. 

Author:
Niklas Höhne, Hanna Fekete, Christian Ellermann and Sandra Freitas
Publication Date:
March, 2014

ecbi Phase I Evaluation

Author:
Rod Janssen
Publication Date:
March, 2007

Sida funded an independent review of ecbi for its 2011-2013 activities and found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes as outlined in the report. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives, attributed to the fact that it does not push a specific agenda, and allows open discussion amongst negotiators in a setting separate from the negotiations process.

The ecbi has become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field - set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing countryled approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience. ecbi input has enabled developing country negotiators to collaborate and develop joint positions. This has led to impacts on negotiation decisions.

One of the key underpinning goals of the ecbi is to build trust between negotiators, both amongst developing country participants, and between those from the developing country and Europe. Respondents communicated strongly that they believed the ecbi is enabling trust building between participating negotiators, and were able to give examples of how this is manifest.

The evaluation also found that participants did feel they were better informed as a result of the ecbi.

Useful examples were identified of how this resulted in a more level playing field, as developing country negotiators and women negotiators often have less access to information resources than other stakeholders in the climate change negotiations. The ecbi also considers gender in its programming and is fulfilling its gender objectives.

Sida funded an independent review of ecbi for its 2011-2013 activities and found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes as outlined in the report. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives, attributed to the fact that it does not push a specific agenda, and allows open discussion amongst negotiators in a setting separate from the negotiations process.

The ecbi has become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field - set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing countryled approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience. ecbi input has enabled developing country negotiators to collaborate and develop joint positions. This has led to impacts on negotiation decisions.

One of the key underpinning goals of the ecbi is to build trust between negotiators, both amongst developing country participants, and between those from the developing country and Europe. Respondents communicated strongly that they believed the ecbi is enabling trust building between participating negotiators, and were able to give examples of how this is manifest.

The evaluation also found that participants did feel they were better informed as a result of the ecbi.

Useful examples were identified of how this resulted in a more level playing field, as developing country negotiators and women negotiators often have less access to information resources than other stakeholders in the climate change negotiations. The ecbi also considers gender in its programming and is fulfilling its gender objectives.

Author:
Lucy Heaven Taylor
Publication Date:
January, 2014

Whether or not the regime emerging from the current negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be based on an explicit cost/burden sharing formula, the debate about (implied) costs/burdens will be central. Such a debate cannot be genuinely meaningful in the absence of an acceptable operationalisation of Article 3.1 in general, and of the concept of ‘respective capability’ in particular.

The Brief proposes a measure for national 'differentiated economic capabilities ('ability to pay') as integral part of an operationalisation. The primary purpose of the measure is to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes). To illustrate the potential use of this methodology the Brief considers two examples: assessing the fairness of a given cost distribution; and developing a (rule-based) 'graduation scheme' regarding obligations to pay.

This is a second revised edition of the original ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller & Lavan Mahadeva that served as summary for policy makers of a technical report by the same authors published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, available at the link below. The revision is mainly with regards to the final section on determining ‘Levels of Capability’.

Author:
Benito Müller and Lavan Mahadeva
Publication Date:
January, 2014

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